Two routes to attitude change i. central route - high elaboration, careful processing of info, attitude change depends on quality of arguments ii. peripheral route - low elaboration, careful processing of info does not occur, attitude change depends on presence of persuasion cues (e.g., attractiveness of person delivering message, expert source) 2. Cognitive Dissonance Theory a. Festinger and Carlsmith study (1959) b. Cognitive dissonance : is the discomfort and/or distress that result when an individual’s attitudes do not match up with his/her behaviors III. Interpersonal Attraction A. Keys to interpersonal attraction 1. Situational factors a. mere-exposure effect (tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it) i. example: proximity increases attractiveness (physical or geographical closeness; major influence on attraction) b. first meeting in a comfortable situation increases attractiveness 2. Similarity between individuals a. attitude similarity – more similar attitudes, high ratings of attractiveness
Spring 2013 Feldman - 11 3. Physical attractiveness a. attraction-similarity hypothesis – people are more likely to be romantically attracted to people who are similar in physical attractiveness than to people who are notably more or less attractive IV. Social influence – the process whereby words or actions of other people directly or indirectly influence a person’s behavior A. Social norms – learned, socially-based rules of behavior 1. Norm of reciprocity – tendency to respond to others as they have acted towards you 2. Creates orderly social behavior a. BUT problem of deindividuation (the process by which group members may discontinue self-evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes; heightened arousal & cohesiveness w/group resulting in reduced sense of personal responsibility & accountability for behavior) B. Conformity – change behavior or beliefs to match others (due to real or imagined group pressure) 1. Sherif’s experiment (1937) 2. Asch’s experiment (1956) C. Compliance – adjust behavior because of a request 1. Compliance techniques a. foot-in-the-door technique – designed to gain a favorable response to a small request first with the intent to make the person more likely to agree later to a larger request (the result desired from the beginning) b. door-in-the-face technique – large, unreasonable request is made first with the expectation that the person will refuse but will then be more likely to respond favorably to a smaller request later (the result desired from the beginning) c. low-ball technique – very attractive initial offer is made to get people to commit themselves to an action, and then the terms are made less favorable D. Obedience 1. Milgram tested obedience to authority V. Group Behavior A. Social Facilitation – the process by which a person’s performance is increased when other members of a group engage in similar behavior 1. evaluation apprehension – concern that others are evaluating our behavior B. Social Loafing
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- Borderline personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder, Avoidant personality disorder, Feldman