Senior ministers senior bureaucrats can be powerful

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Senior ministers, senior bureaucrats can be powerful, but less the case now than previously, governments have their agenda, senior bureaucrats not as much influence-PMO’s office- she didn’t talk about it in the section of the lecture I heard but she must have at some point because that seems like the most important point…-Central agencies like the PMO, PCO, Department of finance, treasury board secretariat have ahuge amount of influence on the policy direction for Canada and the more powerful lobbies are linked with these agencies.LegislativeExecutive branch has a large amount of control over the legislative branch and is part of it in our system, so in some ways the usefulness of individual members of parliament is limited. However there are:-Also members of the house of commons- minority situation, the standing committees can play a strong role because the membership of the committees mirrors the HoC, so right now on the committees there is a majority conservatives. So in a minority situation, majority of the opposition, so they can cooperate and provide access for lobbies, for example, the envi-ronmental interest groups. Difference between our system and the Americans, we have much more disciplined political parties so it is less useful to lobby individual MP’s but if you want block something, even in a majority gvt (and it had some unintended consequences), you could get a standing committee to take a look at your interest.-Party Critic- working with the opposition, the assign certain people to be critics. Mirrors the portfolios of cabinet. The advantage of that for interest groups is if you can get the critic to ask the question that you want in question in Question and period, the media might pick up that question. Different interest groups have different kinds of links with different interest groups.-They can play a role in putting forward private member’s bills, provoke a backbencher to in-troduce a bill that helps their interest.Judicial system- -prior to the charter of rights and freedoms, courts had a big influence on the federal/provincial division of powers. And a lot of those cases were chal-lenges by business, primarily. Challenging an action of government. Prior to the charter, it couln’t be challenged on a rights and freedoms group, but on the jurisdictional groups. And if look at the key cases they are primarily businesses to try to stop something the govern-ment was doing using a jurisdictional argument. Today they have the charter. Whatever tool available to a lawyer, they’ll use. They will use a charter right, for example, corporations now have freedom of commercial expression, which came from a tobacco company challeng-ing government legislation that limited advertising. Can use the court, also social movement,like LGBT’s use of the courts to push for their equality. For example women’s organization Leads, got the court to adopt a position of “substantive” equality, not just “sameness” but

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