CBC anemia leukopenia thrombocytopenia pancytopenia Laboratory findings anemia

Cbc anemia leukopenia thrombocytopenia pancytopenia

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CBC (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia = pancytopenia))-Laboratory findings: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia = pancytopenia-Nursing management Safety: at risk for infections (neutropenia), bleeding precautions Treatment: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), immunosuppressive therapy (improving blood counts), blood transfusions (reserved for bleeding that is life threatening)Hemolytic Anemia (blood destroying) (intrinsic hemolytic anemia: defect present at birth that results in deficiencies in one or more enzymes in RBC (G6PD)) (acquired hemolytic anemia: physical traumas, DIC, autoimmune, infectious agents, toxins)-Nursing assessment Jaundice (RBC breaking down which increases bilirubin) -Laboratory findings (low Hb and Hct) Bilirubin (increase)-Nursing Management: supportive care until causative agent is identified and eliminated, hydration and electrolyte therapy: by products of RBC breaking down can cause blockage of tubules in kidneys which could lead to kidney failure; steroid therapy to depress immune function (temporary); immunosuppressive therapy; spleenectomy; plasma exchange therapy: removing the attacking antibodies)Polycythemia: increase number of RBC (greater than normal, blood is thicker)(hyper viscous blood) (vera – fatal if left untreated) -Nursing assessment: skin and mucus membranes are going to have a dark, flushed appearance;intense itching; hypertension; blood flow may slow; thrombosis/blood clots; tissue hypoxia; -Laboratory findings: massive production of RBC, excessive production of WBC, excessive production of platelets (elevated hemoglobin and RBC); bone marrow examination -Nursing management: poorly oxygenated, increased risk for bleedingPheresis: removed the whole RBC, reduce blood viscosity, and put it back in after removing red blood cells; increase hydration; promote venous return to help clot formation. Self-management education: hydration (3L water/day), avoid tight clothing, elevate legs, TEDs while awake, anticoagulants as prescribed, assess for signs of infection, prevent bleeding
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Thrombocytopenia: decrease in platelets -Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (most common, abnormal destruction of circulating platelets-autoimmune)-Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) (uncommon) -Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) (develop after being exposed to heparin therapy- 5-7 days after) (platelet count falls more than 50% or below 150,000)Nursing assessment (all three): bleeding, epistasis, purpura, prolonged bleeding IM injections or blood drawn, internal bleeding, risk for hemorrhaging (VS, neuro), assess level of consciousness (LOC)Laboratory findings: decrease in platelets, hemorrhaging would be decrease in Hb as well Nursing management: preventing hemorrhage, look for superficial bleeding, internal bleeding when platelets drop really low, safety precautions, coagulation and platelet countNeutropenia: neutrophil count is less than 1000.
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