283 which characteristic feature is seen in the

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283
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WHICH CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE IS SEEN IN THE KIDNEY IN MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION - (AI 94) A) HYALINE NECROSIS B) FIBRINOID NECROSIS C) MEDIAL WALL HYPERPLASIA D) MICRO-ANEURYSM ANS. IS ‘B’ I.E., FIBRINOID NECROSIS [REF. HARRISON 18"‘/EP. 2377, 2378; LTH/EP. 1813] 284
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CAUSE OF FLEABITTEN KIDNEY MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION . TIP INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS . ACUTE POST STREPTOCOCCAL G.N HENOCH-SCHONLEIN PURPURA . RPGN 285
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COMMON PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES SEEN IN KIDNEY IN BENIGN HYPERTENSION ARE - (AI 97) A) FIBRINOID NECROSIS B) MICROANEURYSM C) HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS D) THINING OF WALLS 286
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IN BENIGN HYPERTENSION, THE PATHOLOGICAL CHANGE AFFECTING THE KIDNEY IS HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS IS SEEN IN PATIENTS WHO ARE HYPERTENSIVE FOR AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME (BLOOD PRESSURE, 150/90 MMHG) BUT WHOSE HYPERTENSION HAS NOT PROGRESSED TO A MALIGNANT FORM. 287
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PATHOLOGY OF THE KIDNEY IN HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS – GROSS APPEARANCE: THERE IS BILATERAL SYMMETERIC REDUCTION IN THE SIZE OF KIDNEYS. HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES: THE LARGER VESSELS LIKE OTHER ORGANS SHOW ATHEROSCLEROTIC CHANGES. CHARACTERISTIC PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES APPEAR IN THE AFFERENT ARTERIOLES. WHICH SHOWS THICKENED WALLS DUE TO DEPOSITION OF HOMOGENEOUS EOSINOPHILIC MATERIAL (HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS). 288
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COMMON PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES SEEN IN KIDNEY IN BENIGN HYPERTENSION ARE - (AI 97) A) FIBRINOID NECROSIS B) MICROANEURYSM C) HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS D) THINING OF WALLS ANS. IS ‘C’ I.E., HYALINE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS [REF. HARRISON 18'VEP.2377, 2378; L?H/E P.1813 SEE ESSENTIAL HT ] 289
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HEREDITARY DISEASES IN BARTER'S SYNDROME, WHAT IS SEEN- A) METABOLIC ALKALOSIS (NEET/DNB PATTERN) B) HYPOKALEMIA C) HYPERKALEMIA D) DECREASE IN URINARY CALCIUM 290
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BARTER'S SYNDROME BARTTER SYNDROME AND GITELMAN SYNDROME (ALSO CALLED TUBULAR HYPOMAGNESEMIA- HYPOKALEMIA WITH HYPOCALCIURIA) ARE AUTOSOMA RECESSIVE DISORDERS WITH A CHARACTERISTIC SET OF ABNORMALITIES. 291
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PATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS THE PRIMARY DEFECT IN BOTH BARTTER SYNDROME AND GITELMAN SYNDROME IS AN IMPAIRMENT IN ONE OF THE TRANSPORTERS INVOLVED IN SODIUM CHLORIDE REABSORPTION IN THE LOOP OF HENLE AND DISTAL TUBULE, RESPECTIVELY 292
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THE SALT WASTING THAT OCCURS RESULTS IN THE FOLLOWINS FEATURES COMMON TO PATIENTS WITH BOTH DISORDERS: - IMPAIRED SODIUM CHLORIDE REABSORPTION LEADS TO MILD VOLUME DEPLETION AND ACTIVATION OF THE RENIN- ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM. - THE COMBINATION OFSECONDARY HYPERALDOSTERONISM AND INCREASED DISTAL FLOW AND SODIUM DELIVERY ENHANCES POTASSIUM AND HYDROGEN SECRETION AT THE SECRETORY SITES IN THE CONNECTING TUBULES AND COLLECTING TUBULES, LEADING TO HYPOKALEMIA AND METABOLIC ALKALOSIS.
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