21 ground substance contains some water and

This preview shows page 4 - 5 out of 7 pages.

21.Ground substance contains some water and proteoglycans, which are large molecules formed fromglycosaminoglycans.22.Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are negatively charged hydrophilic molecules primarily comprised of acarbohydrate and they attract water to the extracellular space.23.GAGs are covalently linked into larger molecules along with a protein, known as proteoglycans.24.Ground substance includes other molecules like adherent glycoproteins (proteins with carbohydratesattached), which act like glue to bond consecutive tissue cells and fibers to the ground substance.B.Functions of Connective Tissue1.The many types of connective tissue collectively perform a wide variety of functions, including: physicalprotection, support and structural framework, building of structures, storage, transport, and immuneprotection.2.Bones act as a physical protection for delicate organs like the brain and adipose tissue cushioning protectsthe kidneys and other organs.3.Bones and cartilage support the body framework; bone serves as the framework of the body and cartilagekeeps air tubes open like in the trachea.4.In this example, the sodium atom donates one outer shell electron to a chlorine atom.5.Ligaments bind bone to bone, tendons bind muscles to bone, and dense irregular connective tissue anchorsthe skin to the underlying muscle and bone.6.Adipose connective tissue is the major energy reserve in the body; bone is the primary reserve for calciumand phosphorus.7.Many connective tissues contain leukocytes that protect the body against disease and mount an immuneresponse when necessary.C.Classification of Connective Tissue1.All connective tissue is derived from mesenchyme.2.Adult connective tissues, formed after birth, are classified into three broad categories: connective tissueproper, supporting connective tissue, and fluid connective tissue.3.Connective tissue proper is divided into two broad categories: loose connective tissue and dense connectivetissue.4.Loose connective tissue, comprised of few cells and protein fibers, is classified into three types: areolar,adipose, and reticular.5.Areolar connective tissue, found virtually everywhere in the body, has a loosely confined organization withabundant blood vessels, collagen fibers, some elastic fibers, and several types of cells.6.Adipose connective tissue, also known as fat tissue, is a type of loose connective tissue containing cells,known as adipocytes, the tissue serving as cushioning tissue and storage tissue.7.Reticular connective tissue acts as stroma (structural framework) for the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, andbone marrow; it contains reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and leukocytes.8.Dense connective tissue, a type of collagenous tissue, is a strong soft tissue that is composed primarily ofprotein fibers and less ground substance than loose connective tissue.9.There are three categories of dense connective tissue: dense regular connective tissue, dense irregularconnective tissue, and elastic connective tissue.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 7 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture