For hispanic teens compared to black teens and began

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for Hispanic teens compared to Black teens and began a steady increase, reaching 70.6 per 1,000 women in 2006 (J. Martin et al., 2009). However, a steady decrease began in 2007, and by 2010 the nonmartial birth rate of 50 per 1,000 women was a bit lower than that for Black teens (J. Martin et al., 2012). This downward trend continued to 41.8 in 2012 and reached a low of 34.4 per 1,000 women in 2014, which was the same as the rate for Black teens (Ventura, et al, 2014; Hamilton et al., 2015). Overall, even though there has been a decrease in nonmarital births, the rates especially for Blacks and Hispanic teens is still high. However, the steady significant drop in recent years, especially given that the economy has been in a deep recession with a slow recovery, is highly encouraging. Before considering the possible factors underlying these changes and the consequences of teen births for both the young parents and their children, it is useful to consider comparative data from other industrialized countries. Exhibit 11.4 presents birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old women in 2011 for the United States and 15 other countries. We can see that the United States has the highest teen birth rate (at nearly 31.1 per 1,000 women) compared to all the other countries. The rates in the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Canada are relatively high (between 12.6 and 21.8 per 1,000), but neverthe- less the teen birth rate in the United States is still substantially higher than in these three countries. For all the other countries, the teen birth rates are Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 331 much lower than that of the United States with Spain, Greece, France, and Germany all having rates between 8.2 and 9.6 per 1,000 women. Finland, Norway, Italy. Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands have rates between 4.8 and 7.7 per 1,000 women, while Japan and Switzerland have the lowest, from 3.4 to 4.5 per 1,000 15- to 19-year-olds. Possible Causes of Trends in Teen Nonmarital Births These comparative data put us in a better position for evaluating the many factors that most influence teen nonmarital births in the United States. One of the reasons offered for such increases among teens in all industrialized Exhibit 11.3 Rates of Nonmarital Births per 1,000 Women Ages 15 to 19, From 1980 to 2014 27.6 31.4 42.5 43.8 39 37 35.4 34.8 34.7 34.5 36.2 36.5 35.9 34 31.1 26.7 22 16.5 20.8 30.6 35 32.7 31.3 30.4 30.1 30.1 29.9 31.4 32.3 31.9 30.4 27.9 24.1 20.3 87.9 87.6 106 91.2 75 69.6 64.8 62.2 61.7 60.6 63.5 61.3 59.7 55.8 50.8 43.4 34.4 65.9 73.2 68.5 67.1 66.1 66.6 67.9 68 70.6 65.4 62.4 56.7 50 41.8 34.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012 2014 All Races White Black Hispanic Sources: Adapted from J. Martin et  al. (2009); J. Martin et  al. (2012); B. Hamilton et  al. (2015). Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher.
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