Use with extreme caution if respiratory insufficiency

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Use with extreme caution if: respiratory insufficiency, elevated intercranial pressure, morbid obesity, sleep apnea, and paralytic ileus Adverse Effects : Unwanted effects Euphoria CNS depression that could lead to respiratory depression (this is the most serious adverse effect) Nausea and vomiting Urinary retention Diaphoresis and flushing Pupil constriction (miosis) Constipation Itching Opioid Tolerance
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
-A common physiologic result of chronic opioid treatment Differentiate between: Tolerance: the capacity to endure continued subjection Physical dependence: the adaptation of the presence of the opioid causing withdrawal symptoms if not continued Psychologic dependence: an emotional need for a substance with no underlying physical need Toxicity & Management of Opioid Overdose Opioid Withdrawal: the signs and symptoms associated with abstinence from or withdrawal of an opioid analgesic when the body has become physically dependent on the substance Symptoms: anxiety, irritability, chills and hot flashes, joint pain, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and confusion Opioid antagonist drugs to reverse respiratory depression: Naloxone & Naltrexone Nonopioid Analgesics Acetaminophen: Has analgesic and antipyretic effects, little to no anti-inflammatory effects, and available OTC Mechanisms of Actions: Blocks pain impulses peripherally by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis Indications Mild to moderate pain Fever Alternative when cannot take aspirin products Toxicity and Managing Overdose Even though OTC, lethal when overdosed Overdose, whether intentional or resulting from chronic unintentional misuse could cause hepatic necrosis or hepatotoxicity Long-term ingestion of large doses can cause neuropathy Recommended antidote: acetylcysteine regimen Dosage: Maximum daily dose for healthy adults is 4000 mg/day but 2000 mg/day for elderly or those with liver disease Interactions Dangerous interactions may occur if taken with alcohol or other drugs that are hepatoxic Should not be taken in the presence of: drug allergy, liver dysfunction, possible liver failure, and G6-PD deficiency Herbal Products: Feverfew Related to the marigold family and has anti-inflammatory properties – used to treat migraine headaches, menstrual cramps, inflammation, and fever May cause GI distress, altered taste, muscles stiffness May interact with aspirin and other NSAIDS, and ant-coagulants
Image of page 4
Chapter 12: General & Local Anesthetics Anesthetics: drugs that depress the central nervous system (CNS) normally involve the depression of consciousness, loss of responsiveness to sensory stimulation, and muscles relaxation Aim: a state of depressed CNS activity Two types: General anesthesia: complete loss of consciousness Local anesthesia- localized area that loses pain sensation Balanced anesthesia: gives you relaxation, carelessness, and euphoria General anesthetics:
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern