Autonomic nervous system (ANS)- the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms. Sympathetic nervous system- the division of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy. Parasympathetic nervous system- the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy. Reflex- a simple. Automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response. Endocrine system- the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones- chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
Adrenal glands- a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.Pituitary gland- the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. brain -> pituitary -> other glands -> hormones -> body and brainLesion- tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Ventricles- fluid-filled brain areas.Electroencephalogram (EEG)- an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. PET (positron emission tomography) scan- a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. fMRI (functional MRI)- a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as structure. Brainstem- the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla- the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing. Our brain processes most information outside of our awareness. Thalamus- the brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.