Intervertebral disk-The cushion that lies between two vertebrae.Intracerebral hematoma-Bleeding within the brain tissue (parenchyma) itself; also referred to as an intraparenchymal hematoma.Intracranial pressure (ICP)-The pressure within the cranial vault.Involuntary activities-Actions of the body that are not under a person's conscious control.Linear skull fractures-Account for 80% of skull fractures; also referred to as nondisplaced skull fractures; commonly occur in the temporal-parietal region of the skull; not associated with deformities to the skull.Meninges-Three distinct layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain and the spinal cord within the skull and the spinal canal.Open head injury
-Injury to the head often caused by a penetrating object in which there may be bleeding and exposed brain tissue.Primary (direct) injury-An injury to the brain and its associated structures that is a direct result of impact to the head.Raccoon eyes-Bruising under the eyes that may indicate a skull fracture.Retrograde amnesia-The inability to remember events leading up to a head injury.Secondary (indirect) injury-The "after effects" of the primary injury; includes abnormal processes such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral ischemia and hypoxia, and infection; onset is often delayed following the primary brain injury.Subarachnoid hemorrhage-Bleeding into the subarachnoid space, where the cerebrospinal fluid circulates.Subdural hematoma-An accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater but outside the brain.Subluxation-A partial or incomplete dislocation.Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-A traumatic insult to the brain capable of producing physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and vocational changes.Voluntary activities-Actions that we consciously perform, in which sensory input or conscious thought determines a specific muscular activity.Assessment in Action – CH 261.Decreased level of consciousness2.An epidural hematoma3.Temporal4.Middle meningeal5.Retrograde6.Upper torso7.Lucid interval
8.Increased blood pressure, decreased pulse, irregular respirations9.Primary injury is an injury to the brain and results from impact to the head. On the other hand, a secondary injury occurs as a result of the primary injury. 10. Carefully monitoring the patients, recognizing life-threatening injury, and properly managing your patient you can help to prevent such brain inuries.CHAPTER 27 – VITAL VOCAB + ASSESSMENT IN ACTIONCardiac tamponade (pericardial tamponade)-Compression of the heart as the result of buildup of blood or other fluid in the pericardial sac, leading to decreased cardiac output.Closed chest injury-An injury to the chest in which the skin is not broken, usually caused by blunt trauma.