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Education of court poets oExposed to more knowledge than most courts at time Central figure of poets: oFrederick II, Stupor MundioRights a little poetryArab Poets Ibn Hamdis c. 1056-1133 (Siqilliyyat)oNormans conquer homeland of SicilyoLeft Sicily after Norman takeover "Driven out of paradise" oyouthful spirit under Arab rule, remembering homelandoHe is sad that Sicily is no longer an Arab nation oBeauty and strength oNormans are the enemy oArabs used to be powerful like lions, but jackals (Normans) takeover 6
Khamriyya - wine song Ghazal - love poetry oTerminal disease Arab Worksheet questions: (refer to worksheet for questions)Abu Musa, Al-Buthayri, Abu Hafs, Al-Idrisi, and Ibn BashrunoReferences Norman conquest oAbu Hafs wrote favorable poems to get out of jail oGenerally, to ensure favorability and relevance oPraise Roger the 2ndEnjoys Arabic culture, gardens, fountainsoAl-Idrisi – silver sphereLa Scuola Siciliana "The Sicilian School" oMagna Curia of Frederick II oMid 13th century oFirst national literary movement in Italy First vernacular Italian poetry oVernacular- language spoken by people, not the language of official documents (Latin) and thebasis for modern Italian language oMost intense period of production was 1230-1240Troubadoric traditionoTroubadours - French courtly entertainers, singers of Provençal love poetry, primarily oraltradition oProvencal11th-12th century Derives metrics, rhetoric, imagery from Latin sources Derives notions of service & secret love from Arabic sourcesDerives spiritualization of passion from both culturesLove - humble and unrewarded service to a lady worshipped from afar Earthly love has higher, spiritual purpose Relationship of lover to beloved = analogous to feudal relationship of oath andobligation Aka courtly love Fin amor; oWoman seen as feudal lord 7
oPoet / lover seen as vassal / subject oDisproportion of affection and desire oPoet is elevated in spirit by the beloved, but never at the same level as the beloved Verse forms oCanso - later canzone; love song oTenso - later tenzone; poetic discussionPoets employed in Frederick II's court oOpen education based society oModern / secular court Frederick II founds University of Naples 1224oSecular & classical teaching producing lawyers and administrators for the king's court o14thcentury Sicilian love poetry oMaintains tropes and metaphors of courtly love poetry but abstracts relationship (philosophy)and its playersoFocus on natural phenomenon of love - "Science of love"oMany poems about nature of love, its physical effects and processes oLove becomes focus rather than the beloved Aristotle's de generatione et corruzione oDirect contrast to Catholic church oConcepts that govern relationship of poet to beloved oMan = materia & governed by the laws of matter and subjects to the forces of celestial bodies;man does not act on free will, but is acted upono