It is evident that both the original and revised

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It is evident that both the original and revised Bloom’s Taxonomy are applied in in the design ofinstructional games. The application of the Boom Taxonomy apparently adds the educationalvalues to instructional games by addressing the needs for pedagogical feature in order topromote learning.Table 3summarises how the taxonomy is utilized the instructional gamedesign in previous studies:Table 3: How the taxonomy is utilized the instructional game designHow the Bloom’s Taxonomy was utilisedAuthor1.Used the learning objectives written using the taxonomy toBuchanan et al. (2011)designgamesinlearningvariousskills,subjectmatter,knowledge and tools2.Used learning outcomes in the learning content to design miniRoslina et al. (2011)Games3.Used the taxonomy to design game levelsHwang et al. (2013)Petit dit Dariel et al. (2013)4.IndirectlyappliedandhasincidentallymatchedwiththeSöbke and Londong (2015)learning outcomes of a course5.Used to indicate educational valueLoftin, East, and Lamb (2016)6.Used to address consistency, clarity and conciseness in theVahldick, Mendes, Marcelinoteaching process.and Roberto (2017)1015
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences2017, Vol. 7, No. 4ISSN: 2222-6990It is evident that The Bloom’s Taxonomy and the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy are used to alignthe game play with learning objectives. Whitton (2010) states that instructional games areprincipally designed to achieve specific learning objectives and learning is intended to takeplace, unlike in entertainment games where learning is expected to occur incidentally.Therefore, she cautions that the main challenge in instructional game design is on how toensure the objectives within games support learning objectives. She suggests that learningobjectives, learning activities and game objectives need to be mapped in order to help the gamedesigner to select a suitable type of games and interactions that can support learningobjectives.The taxonomy apparently can create game challenge since the taxonomy comprises six levels ofcognitive difficulty that requires the mastery of the levels in hierarchical manner. Hamari et al.(2016) explains that the ideal setng of instructional games is learning to solve complexproblems that normally starts from easy tasks and the task difficulty is increased progressively.In this case, the taxonomy is potentially useful to develop the progressive challenge. Thetaxonomy can evaluate cognitive achievement as the result of learning in a hierarchical mannerfrom less complex to more complex levels whereby the less complex level must be must bemastered first before the more complex level.In general, learning objectives are organised from the less complex level to the more complexlevels, and students are expected to master all levels accordingly (Bloom et al., 1956; Krathwohl,2002). Thus, they can be used in creating progressive difficulties such as in the form of game

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