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63 power can originate with traits exhibited by the

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��63Power can originate with traits exhibited by the individual or the organization. Power is often supported by otherpeople’s perception of the leader. It is essential for project managers to be aware of their relationships with other people.Relationships enable project managers to get things done on the project. There are numerous forms of power at thedisposal of project managers. Power and its use can be complex given its nature and the various factors at play in aproject. Various forms of power include but are not limited to:uPositional (sometimes called formal, authoritative, legitimate) (e.g., formal position granted in the organizationor team);uInformational (e.g., control of gathering or distribution);uReferent (e.g., respect or admiration others hold for the individual, credibility gained);uSituational (e.g., gained due to unique situation such as a specific crisis);uPersonal or charismatic (e.g., charm, attraction);uRelational (e.g., participates in networking, connections, and alliances);uExpert (e.g., skill, information possessed; experience, training, education, certification);uReward-oriented (e.g., ability to give praise, monetary or other desired items);uPunitive or coercive (e.g., ability to invoke discipline or negative consequences);uIngratiating (e.g., application of flattery or other common ground to win favor or cooperation);uPressure-based (e.g., limit freedom of choice or movement for the purpose of gaining compliance to desired action);uGuilt-based (e.g., imposition of obligation or sense of duty);uPersuasive (e.g., ability to provide arguments that move people to a desired course of action); anduAvoiding (e.g., refusing to participate).Top project managers are proactive and intentional when it comes to power. These project managers will work toacquire the power and authority they need within the boundaries of organizational policies, protocols, and proceduresrather than wait for it to be granted.
64Part 1 - Guide3.4.5 COMPARISON OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENTThe wordsleadershipandmanagementare often used interchangeably. However, they are not synonymous. Thewordmanagementis more closely associated with directing another person to get from one point to another using aknown set of expected behaviors. In contrast, leadership involves working with others through discussion or debate inorder to guide them from one point to another.The method that a project manager chooses to employ reveals a distinct difference in behavior, self-perception, andproject role. Table 3-1 compares management and leadership on several important levels.Project managers need to employ both leadership and management in order to be successful. The skill is in findingthe right balance for each situation. The way in which management and leadership are employed often shows up in theproject manager’s leadership style.

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