HK 3810 Package 3 Respiration.docx

This liberates an h another way of carrying o2 in the

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This liberates an H+ Another way of carrying O2 in the blood is through carbamino Hb, which occurs with the help of H+ in the presence of high O2 Carrying CO2 in the blood: dissolved CO2, bicarb, Hb/ carbamino Hb CO2 was bound to carbamino Hb Onloading O2 offloads CO2 Low CO2 in the alveolus, high CO2 in the blood
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HK 3810 Package 3 Respiration There is a CO2 gradient from the dissolved CO2 to the alveolus This will decrease dissolved CO2, which will help remove CO2 from carbamino Hb At the RBC, we have bound CO2 to bicarb We combine CO2 and H2O to make bicarb, since we have decreasing dissolved CO2 this will cause more CO2 and H2O to be made from bicarb Plasma proteins will carry CO2 that we bound at the level of the tissue once dissolved CO2 starts to drop Blood with low CO2 and high O2 will go to the left heart, arteries, arterioles then capillaries Blood in the capillaries will head down to the level of the tissue The tissues are using O2 so there will be low PO2 and high PCO2 When the blood comes in close proximity to the tissue, O2 will diffuse down it’s concentration gradient, so we will start to lower our dissolved O2 levels, lower PO2 will enhance the ability of O2 to detach from Hb making more O2 available for the cell The decrease in dissolved O2 will strip off O2 from carbamino Hb loaded up from before making more O2 available for the tissue As we are unloading O2 at the level of the tissue, we are loading CO2 into the system We had a low CO2 in the blood, but the tissue has high CO2, so there will be a gradient for diffusion We start to increase dissolved CO2 The dissolved CO2 will combine in the plasma with H2O to make bicarb and H+ CO2 will bind to proteins in the plasma In the RBC we have CO2 and H2O binding to make bicarb and H+ We also have carbonic anyhydrase which accelerates the process above We can bind CO2 to carbamino Hb Increase in CO2 supports binding of CO2 to carbamino Hb, while decrease in O2 supports binding of O2 to carbamino Hb Directionality of onloading CO2 in RBC is helped by the Cl- shift, which at the level of the tissue it take out bicarb and puts in Cl- but in the RBC it takes in bicarb and takes out Cl- This will help get bicarb out so we can continue to make more Then H+ ion from when we onload CO2 to Hb is helping is helping offload Hb and O2 Exercise – increase in tissue metabolic rate increase tissue use of O2 increase production of CO2 Increase PvCO2, decrease PvCO2 If VA remains constant o Remove more O2 from the alveolus by blood than adding by VA decrease PAO2, decrease PaO2 o Add more CO2 to the alveolus by blood than removing by VA increase PACO2, increase PaCO2 To correct this problem, must increase VA, increase VA will add more O2 to alveolar space and remove more CO2 Sensors ChemoRc – found in carotid artery and aortic arch
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HK 3810 Package 3 Respiration o Extremely sensitive to changes in CO2; small changes in CO2 will result in changes in AP frequency into the ccordinating centre which will change VA o Increase in PaCO2 increase AP frequency from the sensors into A
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