6 druginduced gingival overgrowth digo is usually

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[6] Drug‑induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is usually esthetically disfiguring and interferes with speech and mastication. The clinical characteristics common to all DIGOs include a variation in the inter‑ or intra‑patient pattern of enlargement; a tendency to occur more often in the anterior gingiva; a higher prevalence in younger age groups; onset within 3 months of drug use; and no association with attachment loss or tooth mortality. Moreover, the clinical lesions and their histological characteristics are indistinguishable among the gingival enlargements induced by one drug to another. [7] Age and other demographic variables, drug variables, concomitant medications, periodontal variables, and genetic factors are the known risk factors for DIGO. [3] Although adequate literature is available in the form of case reports and case series, a lacunae still exists in assimilation and compilation of this knowledge for clinical application. Hence, Access this article online Website: DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_265_15 Quick Response Code: How to cite this article: Samudrala P, Chava VK, Chandana TS, Suresh R. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth: A critical insight into case reports from over two decades. J Indian Soc Periodontol; doi: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_265_15. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‑NonCommercial‑ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non‑commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints contact: [email protected] [Downloaded free from on Friday, September 15, 2017, IP: 36.79.172.174]
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Samudrala, et al .: DIGO: A review of case reports 2 Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology - Volume XX, Issue XX, Month 2017 in the present article, an attempt is being made to review case reports and case series of drug‑induced gingival enlargements to outline the different drugs that induce gingival overgrowth, their varied clinical presentations, possible pathogenic mechanisms involved, their diagnosis and therapeutic managements. MATERIALS AND METHODS A thorough Medline/PubMed search was done for articles published from January 1993 to December 2014 using the search terms “gingival enlargement,” “gingival overgrowth,” “gingival hyperplasia,” “drug‑induced,” “drug‑influenced,” “medication‑induced,” “medication‑influenced,” and “DIGO” in various combinations. The search has been carried out by two separate investigators and then compared, analyzed, discussed, and agreed upon by the entire team of investigators before inclusion of the articles in the study. Only human case reports and case series of DIGOs published in English were considered for inclusion in the article. Exclusion criteria 1. Studies published in languages other than English 2. Reports of gingival enlargements in nonhuman subjects (DIGO reports in animals) 3. Exclusive review of literature articles 4. Exclusive histopathological analysis without clear reporting of the case 5. In vitro studies 6. Epidemiological studies, including prevalence studies,
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