69Of course, one pervasive problem with these efforts is the failure to challenge gender stereotypes thus perpetuating occupational segregation by sex.70Every child is good at something. Encouraging and giving that child the opportunity to succeed is extremely important is shaping their personality and tolerance for risk. The founder of Ashoka, Bill Drayton, was a poor student in math and science, was a very slightly built skinny kid who did not play sports. Fortunately teachers and parents permitted him to spend time developing a school newspaper. He thrived. He created an inter-high school paper and found enormous fulfillment and expression. It was this 68O’Higgins, ILO, 2001, pg. 162. He goes on to add the caveat ‘unless lowering the remuneration of young people is for the specific purpose of encouraging firms to provide training by sharing the costs between enterprises, the State and individuals. This is one area where the involvement of the social partners is vital.’ 69Ibid, pg. 166. He cites examples from the UK in the 1980s and Germany. 70See for example, Richard Anker, ILO.
20 personal insight from his own early experience at entrepreneurship along with insights gained through the experience of Ashoka that gave birth to his ideas for Youth Venture, another organization launched to spur a movement of, by and for young boys and girls.71Several years ago, Drayton and his team noticed that some 170 Ashoka Fellows had come up with major successful innovations in the area of children and youth. Interestingly, at least two thirds rely on young people to provide the human resources for their new approaches to helping young people grow and learn effectively. 72Sushmita Ghosh, who became President of Ashoka in 2001, created, the first journal for social entrepreneurs, Changemakersin 1993. Changemakershas evolved into an information hub and online resource for social entrepreneurs and people interested in good ideas.73Changemakers has featured the work of some Ashoka Fellows who are changing the way young people are growing up and the ways we learn. For example, Fatou Bin Jobe is reshaping remedial education in the Gambia, Maria Marta Camacho is eliminating ‘math phobia’ in Costa Rica, Jonny Gevisser is transforming schools into ‘hubs for learning’ in South Africa, Ibrahim Sobhan is making in-school learning work in Bangladesh, and Jacek Strzemieczny is engaging students in changing learning in Poland. All six have much to learn from each other about how to best to transform schools and curriculum. Others, such as Alicja Derkowska in Poland who is teaching democracy, Cynthia Mpati who is decreasing the teacher shortage in South Africa or Eliana Sousa Silva who is improving access to higher education in Brazil, focus on transforming teacher training.