181 183 promoters terminators enhancers 3b2 a variety

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18.1 – 18.3 - Promoters - Terminators - Enhancers 3.b.2 A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. 11.1, 11.4 18.1 – 18.4 - Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division - Levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria - Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals - Morphogens stimulate cell differentiation and development - Changes in p53 activity can result in cancer
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- HOX genes and their role in development 3.c.1 Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype. 15.4 16.2 17.5 23.4 - Antibiotic resistance mutations - Pesticide resistance mutations - Griffith’s experiments in transformation - Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 3.c.2 Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 13.4 - Sexual reproduction and random assortment of chromosomes - Random fertilization - Crossing over of chromosomes 3.c.3 Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts. 19.1, 19.2 - Transduction in bacteria - Transposons present in DNA 3.d.1 Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history. 11.1, 11.2 - Use of pheromones to trigger reproduction and developmental pathways - Response to external signals by cells - Cell signaling mechanism comparison across bacteria to eukaryotes 3.d.2 Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling. 11.1, 11.2 43.2 48 1 – 48.3 45.1 – 45. 3 - Plasmodesmata between plant cells allow material to be transported from cell to cell - Immune cells interact by cell-cell contact such as with T-cells and killer T-cells - Neuron transmission across synapsis - Neurotransmitters - Insulin and glucagon - Pituitary hormones 3.d.3 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response. 11.3 - G-protein linked receptors - Ligand-gated ion channels - Receptor tyrosine kinases - Secondary messengers such as cAMP, Calcium ions, and IP3. 3.d.4 changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. 11.4 - Diabetes, heart disease, cancer - Effects of neurotoxins, poisons, and pesticides - Drug interactions 3.e.1 Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others. 51.1 - Fight or flight response - Predator warnings - Avoidance responses - Territorial marking in mammals - Bee dances, bird songs - Courtship and mating behaviors 3.e.2 Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information and produce responses. 48.1 – 48.4 - Acetylcholine - Epinephrine - Dopamine - GABA - Neuro-hormone production - Neurotransmission and responses
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Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions posses complex properties. Essential knowledge Chapters/section s Illustrative examples covered 4.a.1 The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule. 5.1 – 5.5 - Functions groups - Monomers and polymers - Levels of protein structure - Carbohydrates - Lipids 4.a.2 The structure and function of subcellular components and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.
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