Hired to make intelligence tests for kids, observed kids would make the same kinds of mistakes repeatedly. Kids seemed to be using the same strategies over and over, but not the same strategies an adult would use. Proving there is something fundamentally different between kids and adults Theoretical perspective: constructivist : he believed our interactions of the world construct our idea of the world, maturationist : have to be biologically prepared to experience cognitive development (certain kinds of learning can only occur at certain times) Believed that there is a discontinuous trail from one stage to the next Key ideas: o Intelligence is an adaptive, basic life function: goal is cognitive equilibrium (feeling that your beliefs about how the world works are right) o Equilibration will bring us back to cognitive equilibrium o Kids are active, motivated learners o Kids construct their own knowledge through “testing” theories about the world (revising/ accepting) o Balance between assimilation and accommodation Schemas are formed and changed by: o Assimilation: process of encountering something new in the world, and interpreting that information based on knowledge you already have. (broad) o Accommodation: creating a new category for new information that doesn’t fit into a known schema (specific)
Cognitive disequilibrium: accommodating a LOT of the time and not assimilating often, experience isn’t really matching your schema Equilibration: resolves the disequilibrium through re-organization Schemas: mental representation used to organize and reorganize thought. cognitive development is development of increasingly complex schemas Stages of cognitive development: - Revoluntionary changes in thinking, approx. 2yrs old, 7yrs, 11. - All children go through each stage in the same order, at similar ages o (1) sensorimotor (birth-2) From reflective to symbolic processing Mindless reflexes at first “ reflex activity ” stage (1-4 months) Recreate sensations of reflexes stage (4-8 months): use of reflex-based schemas to replicate interesting body-related events and object related events (because they like it, ex. A rubber duck quacks) Onset of intentional behaviour (8-12): intentional/ goal-directed behaviour, combine multiple existing schemes to achieve goals (ex. Going around their dad to get the duck) Intentional experimentation (12-18 mnths): creating interesting events in new ways, learn how objects interact with one another and the world, trial and error, cant solve the problem in their heads so they act it out Using basic symbols (18-24 mths): pretend play, schemes “go mental” (less trial and error). Start to see events happening in their head. Emerging object permanence: understanding objects exist when they cant see them, piaget believed babys don’t learn this until 8 months (peek a boo) Potentially not valid because hes not measuring what he thinks he is A not b error, cant realize that its not under a anymore, its under b now.
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