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drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting relationships between those jobs elements of organizational structurework specializationthe degree in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs (division of labor) chain of commandwho reports to whom? signifies formal authority relationships •specific flow of authority down through the levels of an organizational structure span of controlrepresents how many employees the manager is responsible for in the organization •narrow spans of control allow managers to be much more hands-on with employees (chain of command) •wide spans of control don’t allow managers to be hands-on with employees because there’s a lot that report to them centralizationreflects where decisions are formally made in organization formalizationhigh when there are many specific rules and procedures used to standardized behaviors and decisions •necessary coordination mechanism that organizations rely on to get a standardize product or deliver a standardized service organizational designthe process of creating, selecting, or changing the structure of an organization •departmentalization •how to arrange things that make sense common organizational formssimple structuresreport to one person •most common form because there are more smaller organizations than larger ones •80% of employing organizations have fewer than 19 employees functional structuresemployees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization •ex. accounting department, management department, etc. multidivisional structuresbureaucratic organizational forms in which employees are grouped into divisions around products, geographic regions, or clients •product structures group business units around different products that the company produces geographic structuresgenerally based around the different locations where the company does business •ex. TAMU CStat vs. TAMU Galveston matrix structuresmore complex form of organizational design that tries to take advantage of two types of structures at the same time •ex. grouped by college, grouped by department managing change in organizationsforce-field analysis for plant closingsteps in the change process(Lewin model)•unfreezing: individuals must be shown why the change is necessary •implementing change: the change itself is implemented •refreezing: reinforcing and supporting the change so that it becomes a permanent part of the system work to overcome resistance to changes pros vs cons reasons for closing plant… •need to cut costs •excess capacity •outmoded production facilities reasons against closing plant… •resistance from unions •concern about worker welfare •portable future needs