Communist system finished democratic institutions being formed 1989 Hungary

Communist system finished democratic institutions

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Communist system finished, democratic institutions being formed 1989 Hungary Janos Kadar, leader following 1956 revolution, forced to resign o Acknowledgment of past crimes and history o Barbed wire wall on border with Austria taken down No soviet retaliations Summer 1989 Germany People fleeing to Austria from East Germany via Hungary
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o Honecker blocks travel to Hungary people seek refuge in Prague embassy Honecker allows East Germans to travel to West only if train goes through East o Leipzig Lutheran Churches open discussion, people inspired by perestroika and gradual liberalization Monday protests o October 1989 40 th anniversary of GDR Germans look to Gorbachev for help, chant slogans o October 7 1989 Mass demonstration in Germany, army on standby and Honecker no longer in control Soviets order military de-escalation and allow demonstration to continue peacefully o Nov 9 1989 Gunter Schabowski accidentally lifts restrictions on travel Germans cross border, break wall Revolution spreads to Prague 1989 Czechoslovakia Velvet Revolution, no blood, Havel becomes president (Charter 77) Winter 1989 Romania Ceausescu’s repressive dictatorship, initially liked by west in 60’s for being independent from Moscow o Ceausescu’s executed and overthrown June 3rd 1989 China Tiananmen Square o Students protests for political freedom o Chinese government suppresses rebellion, which does not spread as it did in Europe Defeat for democracy, victory for capitalism Doesn’t spread due to economic reforms and capitalism Communists remain 1989 Entire soviet empire collapses (Prague, Budapest, East Berlin, Leipzig, Poland, Romania) o Romania and China are bloody o Only China succeeds in suppressing through capitalist/economic incentive o Gorbachev doctrine no forceful intervention/self-determination Gorbachev is catalyst for reform. December 1989 : Malta conference between Bush and Gorbachev o events of 1989 had gotten out of hand Poland, Hungary no longer communist, wall down in Berlin o Mutual agenda: Gorbachev acknowledges US permanent presence in Europe German question o German question obvious cannot be divided. Membership of a reunified Germany? Gorbachev accepts German reunification and sole NATO membership in return for economic aid Soviets withdraw. End of Cold war? Cold war started and ended with the German question? 1991 Soviet Question Democratization efforts killed the Soviet Union o Ethnic rival groups pulled country apart o Ukraine, Baltic States, Caucasus States, Stan’s most wanted independence Claims for self-determination given his new doctrine of looser control o Baltic states go first, stating they were forced into Soviet Union via Nazi-Soviet pact Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania o Boris Yeltsin calls for free elections, something Gorbachev never actually did despite promoting. Pluralism communists would have to share power 1991
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