Battery System Phone Charging Unit Solar Panel Light Figure 8: Solar lantern schematic layout
Unit 3: Photovoltaic Systems Solar Lantern Component Assembly A solar lantern as described earlier is made up of components that can be assembled together. This section demonstrates how the basic components of a solar lantern can be assembled. 38 Solar PV Standardised Training Manual Photovoltaic Cells Component Description The photovoltaic cells make up the solar panel that can be used as receiver of energy. The PV cells can be connected in parallel and or in series to attain a desired voltage. (From a dismantled panel cells are tested for voltage output using a multimeter). Diode A diode is an electronic device which allows current to flow in one direction and avoid the reverse. The electricity from the PVs goes through a diode into the rest of the circuit. The diode prevents energy from flowing back into the PV array. Resistors A resistor is a component which resists the flow of current in a circuit. Capacitor An electrical device which stores energy and is measured in Farads. Inductor Coil It is an electrical device which limits current in a circuit and it can also be called a choke. Transistors An electrical device which acts as a valve or a switch in a circuit. LEDs These are light producing diodes. The combination of these electrical components makes up a circuit. They can be seen on circuit boards. (Participants should be able to identify the different components on the circuit board of a solar lantern).
39 Solar PV Standardised Training Manual Solar Home Systems Solar Home Systems (SHS) can either be independent of the utility grid (stand alone) or connected to the utility grid (grid connected). This manual only considers the stand alone systems. Stand-alone PV systems are designed to operate independent of the electric utility grid, and are generally designed and sized to supply certain DC loads. The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC load (as illustrated below). Since there is no electrical energy storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems, the load only operates during sunlight hours, making these designs suitable for common applications such as ventilation fans, water pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar thermal water heating systems. In many stand-alone PV systems, batteries are used for energy storage. Figure X below shows a schematic of a typical stand-alone PV system powering DC and AC loads. Figure 10: Schematic of stand-alone PV system with battery storage powering DC and AC loads. DC Load PV Array DC Load Charge Controller PV Array Inverter Battery AC Load Figure 9: PV Array to DC Load
1. List three reasons why a car battery is not suitable for use in a PV system.
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- Fall '18
- Julie Summers