treatment…President Roosevelt cancelled the plans, but Randolph finally got his March on Washington in 1963, working alongside other prominent civil rights leaders.”National Urban League (NUL)“The NUL formed to assist AAs who moved to northern cities in finding employment and other needs, it joined with southern organizations like the SCLC to organize the March on Washington.”Black Nationalists“Malcolm X is probably the most famous figure of the Black Nationalist movement. While in prison, he learned about the Nation of Islam, also known as Black Muslims, a religious group calling for a separate nation for AAs…Alongside Malcom X, Williams is credited with ushering inthe rise of black nationalism and militancy.”“His book Negroes With Guns advocated learning to use weapons to protect home and family from terror tactics used by the Ku Klux Klan and other groups who were trying to discourage
AAs from demanding and using civil rights.”Malcolm X“Malcolm X is probably the most famous figure of the Black nationalist movement. While in prison, he learned about the Nation of Islam, also known as Black Muslims, a religious group calling for a separate nation for AAs.”“Malcolm X and other Black Muslims referred to whites as “the enemy,” in contrast to MLK’s message of unity…Malcolm X said American culture had caused AAs to hate themselves, calling it the “worst crime of white man.” He reached out of leaders and members of many civil rights groups to share his views and gain support, even MLK.”Black Panther Party“The group began in Oakland, California, calling for “revolutionary war” and equal rights at all costs…Black Panthers encouraged owning weapons and patrolling communities to protect themfrom police officers, or “pigs,” as they called them , using violence if necessary.”“A shootout in Oakland resulted in death for 17-year-old Bobby Hutton, which spread of message of the party and increased membership. Years later, Cleaver said he and fellow party members had instigated the shoutout. Party founder Huey Newton was convicted of manslaughter.”Vocabulary●Boycott – refusal to deal with something, such as a business, as a protest to force some kind of change●Civil disobedience – intentional breaking of a law in a nonviolent or passive manner●Civil Rights Movement – social movement of the 1950s and 1960s to establish equality and civil rights for African Americans●Integration – acceptance and equal access for all people into a group or place●Segregation – enforced separation of groups●Social activism – use of direct action to bring about social changeEvent or ActionOrganization/Key PeopleStrategyBrown v. Board of Education: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that school segregation was unconstitutional.