WHY? too much trying to remove all suffering in lobotomised and standardized form of existence rather than letting lives be informed by suffering. Age of ‘Freudians’ was over • Psychology hasn’t prevented or diminished aggressive by controlling human desires ; it has actually increased them . aka Trying to make pp conform to society has made them more dangerous, not less. The idea of being “maladjusted” is now the right thing . Psychology is now seen as an agent of social harm rather than beneficial. • Theories of Wilhelm Reich: - the repressed feelings had to be let out - the basic drives inside people were good, not bad. The aggression was triggered by their repression in society. stressed the need to release of sexual energy. He got kicked out of the International Psychoanalytic Association and flew to USA. He builds a laboratory and died in prison BUT: • Some of his ideas (yourself unleashed blah blah blah) still lived on: - 1960s: reaction against advertising trying to manipulate pp into buying what they want. - Advertisers thus learned to say they just wanted to give pp what the wanted “be yourself” philosophy • As long as they could see what they were consuming as expressing themselves it was ok BUT in a society of mass production it is hard to produce variety. New age of self expression (1980s) • Have to learn to - “segment” , to respond to “individuated wants”. - classify society not in terms of social class but different desires/drives • How? - start with a huge questionnaire about how pp saw themselves - now people were asking for more questionnaires questions about feelings • What did they find? - self-expression wasn’t infinite but fell into “identifiable types”: “lifestyles” not according to social class but as “mainstreamers” (seeking security) “aspirants” (seeking status) “reformers” (seeking self-esteem) “succeeders” (seeking control) they re-categorise people in terms of psychological needs (1980s) and you encounter this with “personal development plans”. • Businesses like this, they discover which groups are buying their products and thus tailor the products to those groups. • It affected the ability to reach people in politics : generated a whole new industry designed to respond to their particular wants rather than get them to buy certain mass-produced goods. (key for the success of the right in politics) computers were enabling manufacturers to produce short runs of goods economically. No need to worry that supply will outstrip demand. from a market of limited needs to a market of unlimited and ever-changing needs based on expressiveness never-ending consumer boom
1190s • Politicians on the left returned to these techniques of wooing the “inner directed” in order to regain power.
- Fall '19
- Karl Marx