What are the building blocks of matter each type of

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What are the building blocks of matter? Each type of atom corresponds to a different chemical element Atoms are made of particles that we call protons, neutrons, and electrons Protons and neutrons are found in the tiny nucleus at the center of the atom Rest of atom’s volume contains electrons, which surround the nucleus The properties of an atom depend mainly on the amount of electrical charge in its nucleus; an object’s electrical charge is a measure of how strongly it will interact with other charged particles An atoms is held together by the attraction between the positively charged protons in the nucleus and the negatively charged electrons that surround the nucleus Atoms often lose or gain electrons, in which case they obtain a net electrical charge called an ion
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A positive ion is an atom that has lost one or more electrons so that it has more positive than negative charge overall A negative ion is an atom that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge Atomic number is number of protons in the nucleus Combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called atomic mass number Versions of an element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes of the element Atoms can combine to form molecules Substances composed of molecules with two or more different types of atoms are called compounds Life on Earth is based on the complex chemistry of molecules (compounds) containing carbon, which are called organic molecules (or organic compounds) Three phases: solid, liquid, gas Chemical bond – the name we give to the interactions between electrons that hold the atoms in a molecule together Phase changes occur when one type of bond is broken and replaced by another Changes in either pressure or temperature can cause phase changes The melting point is the temperature at which the water molecules finally break the solid bonds of ice Boiling point – all bonds between adjacent molecules are broken so that the water can exist only as a gas The process by which molecules escape from a solid is called sublimation, and the process by which molecules escape from a liquid is called evaporation Conclusion: Pressure has an important effect because high pressure can cause a substance to remain in the solid phase even when the temperature is above the low- press boiling point. What is energy? Energy is what makes matter move Kinetic energy – energy of motion Radiative energy – energy carried by light Potential energy – stored energy Conclusion: Although some form of stored energy is available almost everywhere, in most cases there is no viable way for life to extract the energy for its own use.
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