and hence cosmopolitanism which is causing a shift away from Westphalian

And hence cosmopolitanism which is causing a shift

This preview shows page 68 - 71 out of 73 pages.

and hence cosmopolitanism), which is causing a shift away from Westphalian sovereignty. The concept of the Overview Effect (White 1987) suggests that outer space is playing a role in forcing into our collective social epistemesa greater sense of our common destiny and humanity. Cosmologist Carl Sagan described this as an awakening from our "slumbering planetary consciousness" S.lgJn 1994: 215), which is forcing a reconsideration of our relationship to ourselves, and to the universe. The budding field of astrosociology further studies the ways in astrosocial phenomena (such as space exploration and space . science) and society are related (Pass 2004) and mutually constitutive. Thepotential influence of outer space on collective mentalities issaid to be achieved invarious ways: through images of the Earth from space, which impact upon humans the ecological unity of our planet, and the arbitrariness of political boundaries; through the meta-experiences of astronauts which impact upon us the reality that humans can now go into space; through the role of satellites in connecting us through telecommunications; and shrinking time through real-timeimages(White 1987) (a la the CNN effect). From this perspective, not only does outer space law embody liberal principles, but outer space activity itself may be contributing to a cosmopolitan shiftthat emphasizesthe commonality of the human condition [our "overlapping communities of fate" (Held 2002: 35)}, and the arbitrariness of state-centred approaches to sovereignty. The need to cooperate on big science projects,combined with the planetary and cosmological perspectives that space explorationprovides, powerfully demonstrate global interdependence, andthus potentially make the prospect ofacoe of universal moral conduct seemboth requiredand justified. It can be pointed out that the root of "cosmopoli anism" and "cosmology" are the same "cosmos", meaning "order" and universe" .
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Aff--Ext—Perm--> InterdependenceThe international space station proves—space exploration is essential to forgetting issues of national sovereignty and encouraging interdependenceStuart 9 – Fellow in Global Politics in the Department of Government at the London School of Economics and Political Science (Jill, “Unbundling sovereignty, territory and the state in outer space Two approaches” From Securing Outer Space, Edited by Borrman and Sheean—Chapter 1)However the ISS can also beseen as related to the Overview Eftect, whichimplies shifts towardsmore cosmopolitan epistemes and discourse. Evidence of this is shown by the language used to describe the ISS, in thepractical scientific procedurescarried out on the space station, and in how the ISS provides visual reinforcement of perceptions of the earth as a single community. Linguistically, the ISS isoften toted as a significantcooperative and "human" project. A United Nations report has described it as the largest collaborative scientific undertaking in history, 13 and the Canadian government heralded its involvement in the ISS as a "noble" undertaking. 14 Practically, the ISS
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