The suprarenal cortex is made of 3 zones 1 Zona reticularis Produces small

The suprarenal cortex is made of 3 zones 1 zona

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The suprarenal cortex is made of 3 zones 1. Zona reticularis Produces small amounts of androgens 2. Zona fasciculata Produces glucocorticoids such as cortisol , cortisone , and corticosterone in response to ACTH from adenohypophysis. Typically increases/conserves blood glucose; decreases certain immune functions. 3. Zona glomerulosa Produces mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone (targets kidney to retain Na + ) in response to low Na + or hormones from the kidneys
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Feedback Inhibition in the Hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal axis The HPA axis has profound impact on physiology and responds rapidly to stress Short-term response to stress can be beneficial (fight or flight) Long-term (chronic) stress is detrimental, particularly to immune function
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Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys and Heart The kidneys produce: Renin (enzyme) Erythropoietin (hormone) Calcitriol (hormone) The heart produces: Atrial natriuretic peptide (hormone—ANP) Brain natriuretic peptide (hormone—BNP)
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Kidney Response to Low Blood Pressure Kidneys release renin into the bloodstream Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I Angiotensinogen is produced by the liver Angiotensin I converts to angiotensin II The enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) from the lungs causes this conversion Angiotensin II causes the suprarenal cortex to release aldosterone Aldosterone causes the kidneys to put sodium ions and water into the bloodstream, raising blood pressure back to homeostatic conditions
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Kidney Response to Low Blood Pressure Angiotensinogen II also causes blood vessel constriction, which raises blood pressure Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates RBC production in bone marrow, increasing blood volume and pressure
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Hearts Response to High Blood Pressure High blood pressure (many times) is due to high volume The heart cells in the right atrium detect high volume The heart cells release ANP and BNP These hormones inhibit ADH and aldosterone The result is the loss of water and sodium ions Blood pressure and volume return to homeostatic conditions
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KEY TO PITUITARY HORMONES Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Suprarenal Glands Pancreatic Islets Production of ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones ACTH TSH GH PRL FSH LH MSH ADH Adrenocorticotropic hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone Growth hormone Prolactin Follicle-stimulating hormone Luteinizing hormone Melanocyte-stimulating hormone Antidiuretic hormone Pars distalis (anterior lobe): ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe): Release of oxytocin and ADH Thyroxine (T 4 ) Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) Calcitonin (CT) Each suprarenal gland is subdivided into: Medulla: Epinephrine (E) Norepinephrine (NE) Cortex: Cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, androgens Insulin, glucagon Testis Ovary Ovaries (female): Estrogens, progestins, inhibin Gonads: Testes (male): Androgens (especially testosterone), inhibin Kidneys: Digestive Tract: Secretes numerous hormones Secrete: Erythropoietin (EPO) Calcitriol See Chapter 25 See Chapters 20 and 26 See Chapters 27 and 28 See
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