What do these techniques do why individuals are delinquent even when they know

What do these techniques do why individuals are

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- What are the techniques of neutralization? What do these techniques do? - why individuals are delinquent, even when they know it’s wrong. Techniques of neutralization (justify delinquent behavior by rationalizing our understanding the rules) - denial of responsibility : outside forces are compelling a person’s behavior — can help a person not feel bad about their behavior - denial of injury: justifying delinquent behavior by indicating no one was hurt — not just physically hurt; can also include referring to vandalism as ‘mischief’ or stealing as ‘borrowing’ — the person can then avoid internalizing self as delinquent - denial of the victim: justifying the delinquent behavior by stating that 1) the victim deserved it or 2) the circumstances were such that the delinquent act was necessary - condemnation of the condemners : turning the tables on those condemning / disapprove by condemning them - appeal to higher loyalties: a higher calling or purpose (breaking norms is necessary in a specific situation such as helping a friend or obtaining a necessary resource like food)
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- What is general strain theory (GST)? How can children be pressured into crime? Agnew - looks at what creates strain in juvenile’s lives - focus on circumstances that might lead individuals and groups within a society to engage in delinquent behavior - What are the 3 possible coping strategies to deal with strain? 1. anticipated or actual failure to achieve goals (not get on a sports team) 2. anticipated or actual loss of a positive stimulus (parent dies; romantic relationship breaks up) 3. anticipated or actual presentation of negative stimulus (physical assault, bad grades, insults) - these can lead to anger / frustration which could result in delinquent behavior - What are the 4 possible relationships between gender and strain? How are these relationships different for boys and for girls? 1. boys might encounter more stressors than girls - conclusion: girls encounter at least as many, maybe more stressors 2. boys are more likely to face strains where they are victims of aggression or anger, they are then more likely to focus on violence and property crime- whereas girls more likely to focus on strains that are interpersonal and then focus on issues of fairness 3. genders have differential emotional responses to crime - boys more likely to respond with anger; girls respond with depression and anger - anger can be experienced differently across genders — boys more likely to blame others / take insult (that is they experience anger outward) — outward anger more likely to result in delinquent acts — girls are conflicted by possibly feeling guilty, having concerns about relationships (that is they experience anger inward) 4. explored coping strategies available to both boys and girls — conclusions are mixed chapter 5 - What is the focus of macro-level theories?
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