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unwanted negative effects. It is not clear why universities should focus on helping adjuncts ratherthan reducing their costs or otherwise helping poor students. It is clear that universities can at best help some adjuncts at the expense of the majority, whose positions they eliminate. The moral or just way to make this trade-off 8 The literature on this subject is divided between studies that suggest teaching effectiveness is harmed by adjunct conditions, and studies that suggest contingent and/or adjunct faculty receive classroom evaluations that are comparable to ormore favorable than their tenured colleagues. See in particular (Figlio et al. 2013; Wachtel 1998;
Scheutz 2002, pp. 39–46; Bettinger and Long 2005; Ehrenberg 2005). J. Brennan, P. Magness 123 is unclear. It is clear that increasing the pay, prestige, and benefits associated with adjunct jobs, or with replacement for adjunct jobs, will lead to increased competition for those jobs and will thus come at the expense of the many, perhaps even most, of very people the adjunct rights movement is trying to help. Finally, it is clear that reducing the use of adjuncts will in some waysreduce teaching quality or the range of classes offered, though it is plausible that the overall effect on teaching quality may be positive. In any case, these and other difficult trade- offs complicate the promised benefits of most casually offered adjunct justice propositions. Any robust approach to the present adjunct crisis will need to account for more than simple assurances of higher wages to current adjuncts or budgetary reallocations that assume an abundance of revenue sources in an environment of few constraints. References Ado, K. (2015). Hunger Strike Planned at SLU as Adjunct Professors Push for Higher Wages, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Sep. 9. http:// - plannedat-slu-as-adjunct-professors-push- for/article_90d7228e-0711-584ebaa1-bd20a6e80f73.html American Association of University Professors. (2006). Contingent Faculty Index, 2006, Table 2. gent-faculty-index- 2006. Appiah, KA. (2015). What’s the Point of College? New York Times Magazine, Sep 8. URL: magazine/what-is- the-point-of-college.html?_r=0. Arnold, D., & Bowie, N. (2003). Sweatshops and respect for persons. Business Ethics Quarterly, 13, 221–243. Baumol, W., & Bowen, W.
(1966). Performing arts, the economic dilemma: A study of problems common to theater, opera, music, and dance. New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Bettinger, E, & Long, BT. (2005). Help or hinder? Adjunct professors and student outcomes. The Research and planning group for California Community Colleges. help-or-hinder-adjunct- professors-and-student-outcomes. Cholo, AB. (2015). Are Adjunct Professors the New Fast FoodWorkers?, Pacific Standard, Feb. 26. business- economics/are-adjunct-professors-the-new-fast- foodworkers Christensen, C. (2008). The employment of part-time faculty at community colleges. No: New Directions for Higher Education. 143. Coalition on the Academic Workforce.