Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can

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Unformatted text preview: Either food scarcity or excessive hunting can threaten a population of animals. If the 10 group faces food scarcity, individuals in the group will reach reproductive maturity later than otherwise. If the group faces excessive hunting, individuals that reach reproductive maturity earlier will come to predominate. Therefore, it should be possible to determine whether prehistoric mastodons became extinct because of food scarcity or human hunting, since there are fossilized mastodon remains from both before and after mastodon populations declined, and ______. A. there are more fossilized mastodon remains from the period before mastodon populations began to decline than from after that period B. the average age at which mastodons from a given period reached reproductive maturity can be established from their fossilized remains C. it can be accurately estimated from fossilized remains when mastodons became extinct D. it is not known when humans first began hunting mastodons E. climate changes may have gradually reduced the food available to mastodons Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q21 to Q23: In the 1930’s and 1940’s, African American industrial workers in the southern United Line States, who constituted 80 per- (5) cent of the unskilled factory labor force there, strongly supported unionization. While the American Federation of Labor (AFL) either excluded African Americans or (10) maintained racially segregated unions, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized integrated unions nationwide on the basis of a stated policy of equal (15) rights for all, and African American unionists provided the CIO’s back- bone. Yet it can be argued that through contracts negotiated and enforced by White union mem- (20) bers, unions—CIO unions not excluded—were often instrumen- tal in maintaining the occupational segregation and other forms of racial discrimination that kept (25) African Americans socially and economically oppressed during this period. However, recognizing employers’ power over workers 11 as a central factor in African (30) Americans’ economic marginal- ization, African American workers saw the need to join with White workers in seeking change despite White unionists’ toleration of or (35) support for racial discrimination. The persistent efforts of African American unionists eventually paid off: many became highly effective organizers, gaining the respect of (40) even racist White unionists by win- ning victories for White as well as African American workers. African American unionists thus succeeded in strengthening the unions while (45) using them as instruments of African Americans’ economic empowerment....
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