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form when magnetic loops get so twisted, short circuit and snaps, release energy, get twisted by gas motions- plasma ejected- ionized gas ejected4)Coronal Mass Ejections: huge bubbles of gas ejected from sun,with flares- energy release from solar magnetic fieldAuroras-energetic solar wind particles that enter earths atmosphere (aurora borealis, northern lights) Auroras are the interaction between the charged particles from the Sun and atoms in the Earth’s atmosphere. Oxygen emission is green or brownish-red, and nitrogen is blue or redThe auroras happen closer to the poles because the Earth’s magnetic field funnels the charged particles to the poles.-dangerous CMEs: volt blew up, satellites electrically shocked, blackout of 1989- power transformer in quebec crashedWhat causes solar activity? Stretching and twisting of magnetic field lines near the Sun’s surface causes solar activityHow does solar activity affect humans? Bursts of charged particles from the Sun can disrupt communications, satellites, and electrical power generationPROPERTIES OF STAR-1.How far away are they? (Distance) : parallax : 2.How bright are they? (Luminosity) :3.How massive are they? (Mass) than half of all stars are members of binary star systems, where the stars orbit each other, bound together by gravity. – orbit around their center of mass = M: masses of objects measured in solar masses: one solar mass is Binary starsorbit a common center of mass: The massive star is closer to the center of mass and travels in a smaller orbit. example, if one star has an orbit twice as large as the other star’s orbit, then it must be halfas massive [M1/M2=r2/r1]*massive: 150 M, least massive: .08MMass Luminosity relationship: Luminosity ~ Mass ^3.54.What are their surface temperatures? (Temperature) -review thermal radiation-Joseph von Fraunhofer-interrupted dark lines in solar spectrum- • A continuous spectrumrainbow in the sky is a good example. – hot opaque body(dense gas/sold)• An emission (or bright) line spectrumBright lines against dark background (hot, transparent gas)• An absorption (or dark) line spectrumcontinuous spectrum. (cold low dense transparent gas)Spectra: spectrum depends on source: three simple laws-formation: atoms absorb specific colors (wavelengths) of light and later re emit the energy