Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

Victory at the battle of philippi the triumvirate

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victory at the Battle of Philippi , the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators . [note 4] The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. Philippics - a fiery, damning speech, or tirade , delivered to condemn a particular political actor. The term is most famously associated with two noted orators of the ancient world, Demosthenes of Athens and the Roman Cicero. After the death of Caesar , Cicero privately expressed his regret that the murderers of Caesar had not included Antony in their plot, and he bent his efforts to the discrediting of Antony. Cicero even promoted illegal action, such as legitimizing the private army of Gaius Octavius , or Octavian. In all, Cicero delivered fourteen Phillipics in less than two years. Cicero's focus on Antony, however, contributed to his downfall as he failed to recognize the threat of Octavian to his republican ideal. Cicero's attacks on Antony were neither forgiven nor forgotten, with the result that he was proscribed and killed in 43 BC “First/Second Triumvirate”- First= Pompey, Crassus, Caesar ruled together. Second = Octavian/Augustus, Lepidus, Marc Antony Sextus Pompey - Son of Pompey, general of the late roman republic. Developed an army/navy in Sicily. After resisting against Rome eventually dubbed an enemy of the state and executed without a trial. Octavia - t he elder sister of the first Roman Emperor , Augustus (known also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder , and the fourth wife of Mark Antony . Marc Antony cheating on her with Cleopatra was a demonstration of him turning his back on Rome because Octavia represented loyalty, nobility and humanity, and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues Cleopatra - the last active ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt , briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion . After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire . First established ties
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14 via Caesar and after his assassination did the same with Marc Antony. Antony committed suicide after losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, and Cleopatra followed suit . Questions How and why are the careers of the Gracchi so important in Roman history? Populist politicians who first proposed land reforms Both brothers killed by the Senate → first of the SCU’s Kill the tribunes who do not have the good of the Republican mind Began a precedent of new power apparatus client/patron system → wanted to appeal to plebs as source of power Established a pattern of non-elites of obtaining sources of power for oneself Which “side” of Roman politics is winning throughout this period, and why?o Populists why? cuz The republican system is clearly failing, this appears out of that Appearance of dictators Chaos and warfare
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