With this method maintenance costs are higher as

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With this method, maintenance costs are higher as pipes often clog with soil or rocks. Also, the expense and difficulty of construction may prohibit its use. Unless the seep supplies abundant quantities of water, this method should not be considered.
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Dams, Ponds and Lakes Dams: A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. The reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but provide water for various needs to include irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture and navigability. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Types of Dam Arch Dam: Arch dams are made from concrete. They are curved in the shape of an arch, with the top of the arch pointing back into the water. An arch is a strong shape for resisting the pushing force of the water behind the dam. Arch dams are usually constructed in narrow, steep sided valleys. They need good rock for their foundations, and for the sides of the valleys, to resist the forces on the dam. Gravity dams: In a gravity dam, the force that holds the dam in place against the push from the water is Earth's gravity pulling down on the mass of the dam. Arch-gravity dams: A gravity dam can be combined with an arch dam into an arch-gravity dam for areas with massive amounts of water flow but less material available for a purely gravity dam. The inward compression of the dam by the water reduces the lateral (horizontal) force acting on the dam. Thus, the gravitation force required by the dam is lessened, i.e. the dam does not need to be so massive. This enables thinner dams and saves resources. Barrages: A barrage dam is a special kind of dam which consists of a line of large gates that can be opened or closed to control the amount of water passing the dam. The gates are set between flanking piers which are responsible for supporting the water load, and are often used to control and stabilize water flow for irrigation systems. Embankment dams : Embankment dams are made from compacted earth, and have two main types, rock-fill and earth-fill dams. Embankment dams rely on their weight to hold back the force of water, like gravity dams made from concrete . There are various types Rock-fill dams : Rock-fill dams are embankments of compacted free-draining granular earth with an impervious zone. The earth utilized often contains a high percentage of large particles hence the term rock-fill. The impervious zone may be on the upstream face and made of masonry, concrete, plastic membrane, steel sheet piles, timber or other material. The impervious zone may also be within the embankment in which case it is referred to as a core. In the instances where clay is utilized as the impervious material the dam is referred to as a composite
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  • Fall '15
  • Drinking water, Sewage treatment, Water supply network

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