Understanding assign meaning to messages to interpret

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- Understanding: assign meaning to messages-to interpret a message by making sense out of what you hear - Remembering: to recall information - Responding; to confirm your understanding of a message Listening styles : a person’s preferred way of making sense out of message - Relational Listeners o Listening to people’s emotions and feelings. o Search common interests and seek to empathize with feelings of others o Less apprehensive , but more empathic than other listeners - Analytical listeners o Listen for facts and tend to withhold judgment before reaching a specific conclusion o Tend to listen entire message , analyze information, well organized - Critical listeners o Good at evaluating information that they hear o Detailed, complex information and focusing on the facts. o Likely to catch errors in the overall logic and reasoning being used to reach a conclusion o More skeptical and critical (second guessing) - Task-oriented listeners o Focusing on a specific outcome or task than on the communication relationship. o Completing a specific transaction such as solving problem o Look at the overall structure of the message to see what action needs to be taken o Like efficient, clear and briefer messages Listening barriers - Self barriers : personal habits that work against listening well o Self focus: focusing on an internal message keeps us from selecting and attending others’ messages o Emotional noise: occurs when emotional arousal interferes with communication effectiveness o Criticism - Information-processing barriers: the way we mentally manage information o Processing rate o Information overload o Receiver apprehension: fear of misunderstanding the messages spoken by others o Shifting attention o Cultural differences : some cultures place greater emphasis on listener than speaker - Context barriers: the surroundings in which we listen o Barriers of time: morning person vs evening person o Barriers of place: quiet time and place Improving listening skills - Stop : turn off competing messages o Be aware of competing messages : stop our own running commentary about issues o Stop internal noise : put my own thoughts aside o Socially decenter: stepping away from your own thoughts and attempting to experience the thoughts of another. - Look: listen with your eye o Attend to the meta- message: the message about the message. Related to nonverbal comm. o Nonverbally communicate your interest in the other person: ex) eye contact
- Listen: understand both details and major ideas o Identify your listening goal : increase your self-awareness of the listening process o Mentally summarize the details of the message o Link message details with the major idea of the message o Practice by listening to difficult or challenging material o Work to overcome listening barriers o Don’t interrupt o Listen actively Responding skills - Be descriptive, - Be timely - Be brief - Be useful Chapter 4 Nonverbal communication is communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone.

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