And maintained diplomatic relations with byzantine

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and maintained diplomatic relations with Byzantine and Abbasid Capital @ Aachen, relied on aristocratic deputies, led by missi dominici (envoys of the lord ruler) 800 B.C.E: Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as emperor which angers Byzantine Empire Decline: internal disunity and external invasions Leads to feudalism : landlords provide land grants to vassals in exchange for loyal service Manorialism : Rural economic system between landlords and their serfs (laborer for landlords); hierarchy of exchanged labor for access to land; decentralized Heavy Plow : turns heavy soils and increased production (cultivation of new lands, watermills and rotating crops) Three-Field System: farmland was divided into three fields of equal size (winter crop, spring crop, unplanted for fertility increase) The Holy Roman Empire : Neither holy; nor Roman; nor an empire Otto I campaigned to protect church → Pope John XII crowns Otto I as emperor in 962 and the Holy Roman Empire was born The crowning of the Holy Roman Emperors by the Pope signified that ultimately the pope had more power Cathedral schools in France and N Italy become universities ( University of Paris ), curriculum taught logic, philosophy, arithmetic Scholasticism: synthesizing beliefs and values of Christianity w. Greek philosophy ( St. Thomas Aquinas : famous theologian) God exists because God exists Italian city-states were separate from a centralized kingdom or feudal societies. Growing merchant class → lots of trade and $$. Popes rule central Italy: Papal State Christian Church: becomes top of feudal social structure Ruled by the Pope in the West, and the patriarch in the Byzantine Empire Sacraments : holy rituals that bring spiritual blessings on observants (baptism, matrimony, etc.) Devotion to Saints ( Virgin Mary and Jesus were the two most important); saints were humans who led good lives (special esteem) Veneration of relics → pilgrimages mainly to Rome (St. Peter and St. Paul) and Compostela (St. James) Benedictine Monasticism came into West from Eastern tradition of asceticism (self-denial) and eremitism (solitary life) Rule of Saint Benedict → Magna Carta of monasticism (religious perfection, poverty, chastity); Horarium : daily schedule Monks made illuminated manuscripts with biblical scenes and text. Expensive bc hand copied and written with calligraphy. Monasteries served as inns and orphanages and effectively spread Christianity Monk’s main occupation: Opus Dei (work of God) → Gathered 7 times a day for prayer, Lectio Divina (divine reading) Friars - devoted to God; reached out to communities; lived in poverty Monasteries and the church were the basis of society during the Dark Ages time period, and controlled social, economic, political and artistic aspects of life.
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