Sebum is produced by the sebaceous glands to lubricate the skin and hair. The functions of the skin include all of the following; protection, prevention, perception, and production of vitamin D, additionally, temperature regulation communication and identification. A raised, rough plaque of red-tan pigmentation with a silver white scale describes a precancerous keratotic lesion.
A grouping of six or more café au lait macules, each more than 1.5cm in diameter, in a newborn requires furtherevaluation by the in-house neonatal nurse practitioner as they are diagnostic of neurofibromatosis, an inherited neurocutaneous disease. Erethema toxicum is a common rash that appears in the first 3 to 4 days of life. Sometimes called the “flea bite”rash or newborn rash, it consists of tiny, punctate, red macules and papules on the cheeks, trunk, chest, back andbuttocks. The cause is unknown; no treatment is needed.Cutis marmorata is a transient mottling in the trunk and extremities in respons to cooler rooom temperatures. It forms a reticulated red or blue pattern over the skin. Persistent or pronaounced cutis marmorata occurs with down syndrome or prematurity. The harlequin color change, occurs when the baby is in a side-lying position. The lower half of the body turns red and the upper half blanches with a distinct demarcation line down the middle. The cause is unknown and its occurrence is transient. An example of a primary lesion is urticaria. An erosion is a break in the continuity of the of the surface of the skin with a scooped out but shallow depression that is moist buet does not have bleeding and heals without scar because erosion does not extend intothe dermis. An ulcer is a deeper depression extending into the dermis, which is irregular shape, may bleed and leaves a scar when it heals. Examples: stasis ulcer, pressure sore, chancre. All of the following statements are true of the paocrine glands; a type of sweat gland, mainly located in the axillae, anogenital area, nipples and navel. These glands produce a thick milky secretion and open into the hair follicles. The Apocrine glands become active during puberty and decrease functioning in aging adults. The components of a nail examination include contour, consistency, and color. The term used to describe the shape of a lesion as being circular is annular. The sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue that causes a deep depression in the skin that extends into the dermis is called ulceration. Purpura is a confluent and extensive patch of petechiae and ecchymosis, greater than 3mm flat, red to purple, macular hemorrhage. It is seen in generalized disorders such as thrombocytopenia and scurvy. Also occurs in old age as blood leaks from capillaries in response to a minor trauma and diffuses through the dermis. The single- chambered, superficial lesions containing free fluid greater than 1 cm in diameter are called bullae.
- Fall '18