These elements never have more than 4 covalent bonds

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NOT have d orbitals available for bonding (check your possible quantum numbers for n = 2). These elements NEVER have more than 4 covalent bonds total 1. Expanded octets: Main group elements in period 3 or greater DO have d orbitals available for bonding and can expand their octets. This means these elements can have more than 4 covalent bonds possible. PF 5 (P has 10 electrons around it) XeF 4 2. H and He follow the duet rule. - for H, n = 1 means only 1s orbtials available for bonding. When that 1s level is filled with 2 electrons H is stable and has the noble gas configuration of He. - H can ONLY form 1 covalent bond, never any exceptions! 3. Molecules with odd numbers of electrons. - also called radicals. - your body uses one called Nitric oxide (NO) and is a signaling agent in vasoconstriction and vasodilation, and regulates blood pressure. When NO is released by the body to muscle tissue, the tissue relaxes allowing blood vessels to expand…leading to a drop in blood pressure and increased blood flow. -Viagra and other medications signal the release of NO - see page 186 in your text. 4. Other elements that have less deficient octets: B and Al follow the sextet rule: they have 6 electrons around them instead of 8. We will see why this arrangement exists in the next chapter AlCl 3 BF 3
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Be makes octet deficient compounds as well BeF 2 9.9 Formal Charge Some resonance structures produce a molecule with an atom that is charged. This formal charge is a hypothetical charge obtained by assuming that bonding electrons are equally shared
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