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•Parenting stylesoAuthoritative parenting-encourages independence but within limits, warm and nurturing, respect for child’s own decisions.oAuthoritarian parenting-parents are demanding, expect obedience, are not responsive to children’s own desires, communicate poorly with childrenoIndulgent parenting-parents are low on control, have few rules and avoid controlling their children. Children never learn to control their own behavior and they get whatever they want.oNeglectful parenting-parent is uninvolved in child’s life, feel that their own life is more important. Children tent to be socially incompetent, truant and delinquent.•Types of abuseoPhysical abuse- the infliction of physical injuryoChild neglect- failure to provide for basic needsoSexual abuse-when an adult uses a child for sexual purposesoEmotional abuse-acts by caregivers that cause serious behavioral/cognitive/emotional problemsoMost common maltreatment is neglect.•Play in early childhoodoThe role of playis to provide advances in cognitive development, affiliation with peers, tension release, exploration and provision of a safe haven.oThe role of sensorimotor play- behavior engaged in by infants that lets them derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas.oPractice play-repetition of behavior that allows new skills to be learnedoPretense/symbolic play- when a child transforms aspects of the physical environment into symbols. Reflects child’s advancements in cognitive development.Ch 9: Middle Childhood- physical and cognitive development Stage of Development Height Weight Infancy 20in long 7 lbs Early/Middle Childhood Grow 2-3 in/yr Age 11 girls are 4ft 10in, boys are 4ft 9in Gain 5-7 pounds a year •Cognitive changes- children in the concrete operational stageoCan consider several characteristics rather than focusing on a single property of an object.oClassify or divide things into different sets or subsets and consider their irrelationship•Information processing approachoShort term memory- a passive store house with shelves to store info until it is moved into long term memoryoWorking memory-mental workbench where people manipulate and assemble infooLong term memory-permanent and unlimited type of memory, increases with age during middle and late childhood.
Page 12of 20•Sternburg’s theory- intelligence consists of analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. Component of Intelligence Description Analytical intelligence Ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, contrast. Tend to be favored in conventional schooling. Have good grades, go to good colleges Creative intelligence Ability to create, design, invent, organize, imagine.