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Lieutenant Colonel Charles Young was eligible to lead troops in the war but whites did not want to take orders from him- military authorities forced him to retire claiming he had high blood pressure- He rode a horse from Xenia, Ohio to Washington DC to prove he was in good health ●Blacks= 3% of combat strength●Du Bois’s Disappointment- Du Bois wanted all of America to forget their issues and go fight for freedom and democracy, but by the end of the war, he saw that black loyalty and sacrifice had not eroded white racism 16-7 What were the causes of racial violence in the early 20th century and why was that violenceso intense? ●Most white Americans clung to social darwinism and white supremacy- whites acted with contempt and violence to demands by black people for fairer treatment●1906- Atlanta, white mobs attacked black residents- many black people were attracted to Atlanta for economic opportunities and the whites did not accept the newcomers- the Atlanta newspapers such as the Constitution, the Journal, and the Georgian published accounts about black crime and black men who brutalized white women (they were false or exaggerated) ○Sept 22, 1906- a white man jumped on a box on Decatur Street and waved an Atlanta newspaper with the headline “THIRD ASSAULT.” He said “are white men going to stand for this”? The crowed roared “no, save our women”! “Kill the niggers”- violence followed and blacks were still segregated ●George Richardson (black male) was accused of raping a white woman in Springfield Illinois in Aug 1908. Even though Richardson was placed out of town, violence still occurred. 6 blacks were shot and killed, 2 were lynched, dozens were injured , and black homes and businesses were wrecked- led to the creation of the NAACP
●NAACP sent Du Bois and Martha Gruening to East St. Louis to report on the “Massacre at East St. Louis.” Black people were killed and thrown in rivers, black homes were burntdown because of a drive by shooting ●Black soldiers in Houston (1917) attacked police officers and civilians a month after the East St. Louis riot●Between 1916-1919 the black population in Chicago doubled as migrants from the south moved north in search of jobs, political rights, and fair treatment- a housing shortage strained the boundaries between black and white residences and racial tensions increased●Tulsa 1921- Dick Rowland was accused of raping a white woman elevator operator, and rumors circulated that white men wanted to lynch him●Greenwood neighborhood (Rosewood) went up in flames during the riot in June of 1921 16-8 Why did African Americans begin to leave the rural south in the early 20th century, and what kinds of lives were they able to make for themselves in urban communities? (most remained in southern states)●Great Migration from the rural south to the urban north became a flood by the second decade of the 20th century- most were younger and had no idea about slavery in the past- they just wanted better lives for themselves ●The boll weevil