Coronal hole Regions in the corona from which the high-speed solar wind is known to originate. Coronal holes, usually found near the Sun’s poles, are large regions in the corona that are less dense and cooler than the surrounding region. Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) An apparatus installed during the 1993 First Servicing Mission. By placing small and carefully designed mirrors in the telescope, COSTAR successfully improved restored Hubble's vision to its original design goals. All the new instruments installed during the servicing missions have internal corrections for spherical aberration and do not require the services of COSTAR. Hubble’s last original instrument, the Faint Object Camera, was replaced by the Advanced Camera for Surveys during SM3B. COSTAR was replaced by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph during Servicing Mission 4 and returned to Earth in the space shuttle. Cosmic abundances The relative proportions of chemical elements in the Sun, the solar system, and the local region of the Milky Way galaxy. These proportions are determined by studies of the spectral lines in astronomical objects and are averaged for many stars in our cosmic neighborhood. For example, for every million hydrogen atoms in an average star like our Sun, there are 98,000 helium atoms, 360 carbon atoms, 110 nitrogen atoms, 850 oxygen atoms, and so on. Cosmic background radiation Electromagnetic energy filling the universe that is believed to be the radiation remaining from the Big Bang. It is sometimes called the “primal glow.” This radiation is strongest in the microwave part of the spectrum but has also been detected at radio and infrared wavelengths. The intensity of the cosmic microwave background from every part of the sky is almost exactly the same. Cosmic microwave background Radiative energy filling the universe that is believed to be the radiation remaining from the Big Bang. It is sometimes called the “primal glow.” This radiation is strongest in the microwave part of the spectrum but has also been detected at radio and infrared wavelengths. The intensity of the cosmic microwave background from every part of the sky is almost exactly the same. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) A spectrograph that detects ultraviolet light. A spectrograph works by breaking up light from an object into its individual wavelengths so that its composition, temperature, motion, and other chemical and physical properties can be analyzed. COS will study the structure of the universe and how galaxies, stars and planets formed and evolved. Astronauts installed COS during SM4. Cosmic rays High-energy atomic particles that travel through space at speeds close to the speed of light; also known as cosmic-ray particles.
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