Info (cognitive) is learned as basis for developing affect (affective), which guide what they do (behaviour) Consumer is viewed as an active participant in communication process who gathers info through learning Likely when consumer is highly involved in purchase process and there is much differentiation among competing brands – such consumer durables (electronics, cars, etc.) The Dissonance/Attribution Hierarchy: where consumers first behave, then develop attitudes/feelings as a result, then learn or process info that suppers this behaviour Do feel learn Occurs in situations where consumers must choose between 2 alternatives that are similar in quality but are complex and have unknown attributes – i.e. may purchase off a recommendation o Reduces postpurchase dissonance o Consistent with consumer’s selective perception
Advertising Notes Ch4: Communication Response Models Attitudes develop after purchase (as does learning) Low Involvement Hierarchy: receiver passes from cognition to behavior to attitude Learn Do Feel Situations with low consumer involvement in purchase process, when there are minimal differences in alternatives Consumer may focus more on nonmessage elements than actual content, therefore take advantage by having music/etc. that can be retained by consumer without any active cognitive processing while repeating simple product claims such as key points or benefits Implications of Alternative Response Models Standard learning models do not always apply Sometimes consumers make decisions on the basis of general awareness Therefore marketers should analyze involvement levels and differentiation as well as consumer use of info and experience levels L3: Cognitive Processing of Communications Understanding consumers’ cognitive processing of advertising messages The Cognitive Response Approach *figure 4.4* Cognitive Responses: thoughts that occur to consumers while reading/hearing communication – usually measured by having consumers write/report their reactions these thoughts shape ultimate acceptance or rejection of a message Three categories of cognitive response: product/message, source-orientated, ad execution thoughts Product/Message Thoughts: thoughts directed at product/service and/or the claims being made in the communication – attention is focused on two types of responses (counterarguments and support arguments) Counterarguments: thoughts the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message – i.e. “I don’t think Tide could get that stain out” More likely when message makes claims that oppose receiver beliefs More counterargument = less likely they will accept the message Support Arguments: thoughts that affirm the claims made in the message – i.e. “Tide looks like a good product” Source-Orientated Thoughts: directed at source of communication
Advertising Notes Ch4: Communication Response Models Source Derogations: negative thoughts about spokesperson/org. making claims – lead to
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- Summer '14
- Elaboration likelihood model, Word of Mouth communication