As Linell 1982 has pointed out written Ianguage differs from spoken language

As linell 1982 has pointed out written ianguage

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As Linell (1982) has pointed out, written Ianguage differs from spoken language (and especially from face-to-face dialogue)in timing and many other important respects;a sum- mary of these differences is presented in Table 4.1. Iflhen individuals cornmunicate in writing, it is important to remember that, even though the printed record of their exchanges may sometimes look like a record of face-to- face dialogue, there are crucial differences: For
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t17 Discourse Analysis Table 4.1 Differences Berween Written and Spokcn Language \\'ritten Text Fdce-to-Fdce Dialogue Is a persisterrt, static 'obiect" k can be rereadany time' Ir seldom requires a rapid response. Consists of discrete, separate symbols Words are easily separatcd. Text is organized spatiallY. ls relatively context-free It uses only words and punctuation The words are highly exPlicit. Text is monologue and solitarY. There is no immediatereader. The writer and readerare in different places. Text must often be addressed to a gcneral audience. ts acquired as secondary socialization Literacy is learned institutionally (in schools). Ir is taught with explicit, conscious norms. The norms are more standardized, with less variation, SOURCE:Adaptcd from Linell (1982, pp. 5-10); rcprintcd from Bavelas and Chovil (2000). Copyright 2000 by Sage Publications. NOTE: Some of the features of wrinen text noted here do not apply to computer'mediated communication, especially if both parties are on-line at the samctime. Is ephemcral''dynamic' It cannot ordinarily be reviewed. The participants must respond immediately, "on-line.' Is virnrally continuous Words and other acts merg€' Dialogue is organized t€mPorally. Is highly dependent on context It uses face and hand gestures as well as prosodic features. The words can be less exPlicic. Dialogue is a "social interplay." There is an addressee present. The participants are in the same sening. Dialogue can draw on the sertinS, and the ongoing conversatlon. Is acquired as Primaty socidization Dialogue is learned inrerpersonally (at home), It is practiced rather rhan explicitly taught' The norms are freer, with more variation. example, the participants were usually not in rhe same social context or physical sening,and rhey may not have been responding only to each other (e.g., memos go to other recipients as well; newspaper editorials and lecers to edi- tors have larger audiences). Even the immedi- are particiPants may have been drawing on different memories or versions of what they previously corresponded about (or even of the messages they were currently resPonding to)' They may have given more or less time to thinking about and writing or editing their replies. The way the recipient (or researcher) reads a reply may not be the way the writer "sid" ig; that is, the writer may have intended an emphasis on one word whereas, lacking any auditory cues' the reader may assume an emphasis on a different word. Although the wriften version that the resealcher possesses may be exactly what the participants wrote and read, it is important that he or she be alen
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