Can prove identity by showing prior acts or crimes

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Can prove identity by showing prior acts or crimes which are similar (same modus  operandi) to charged crime, e.g. signature crimes. d. Can prove preparation if show bought a gun one month before crime and it is same  kind of gun.     e. Can prove knowledge by showing that D sold heroin in past if D says don't know  what heroin looks like. f. TWO part test i. Allow if falls under "other purpose." ii. Do Rule 403 balancing test so not too prejudicial. 4. METHODS OF PROVING CHARACTER  - Rule 405 Rule 405(a) a. If character evidence admissible, proof can only come in as testimony as to  REPUTATION or OPINION. i. Opinion - W's personal knowledge of victim/accused. ii. Reputation - What 3rd parties think of victim/accused. b. On CROSS-X, can ask about relevant specific INSTANCES OF CONDUCT. 4
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i. Can ask W if aware of specific instances of conduct.  Maybe W's testimony of  opinion or reputation is not reliable b/c W does not know accused/victim that  well.   ii. Protect D by:  1)Prosecutor must have good faith belief that conduct asking  about actually happened.   (p.475), and 2) give jury limiting instruction that  consider these instances of conduct to hurt W, not prove that D have propensity  to do act. Rule 405(b) c. If character is essential element of charge, claim, or defense, can use specific  instances of conduct. i. In criminal cases, character is almost never  an essential element of charge or  defense.  ii. For defense of entrapment, character is essential element.  (p.480, n.5) 5. PAST SEXUAL CONDUCT EVIDENCE AND SEX OFFENSE CASES - Rule 412  (p.475) a. Rule 412(a) - Reputation or opinion evidence of past sexual behavior of an alleged  victim is not admissible. i. Policy decision not to allow woman's sexual reputation in b/c want to 1) protect  victim and 2) evidence not reliable. b. EXCEPTIONS - Evidence of victim's past sexual behavior,  other than reputation or  opinion, allowed only if: i. evidence is of past sexual behavior with persons other than the accused, offered  by the accused, to the issue of whether the accused was the source of the semen  or injury, or ii. evidence is of past sexual behavior with the accused and is offered by the  accused as to issue of whether the alleged victim consented to the sexual  behavior. F. HABIT AND ROUTINE PRACTICE EVIDENCE -  Rule 406 (p. 495) 1. RULE - Evidence of habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization,  whether corroborated or not, is relevant to prove that the conduct of the person or  organization on a particular occasion was in conformity w/habit or routine practice.
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