I some of these traits are called adaptations and

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i.) Some of these traits are called adaptations and contribute to survival, health, and sexual attraction. Those with these advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, creating populations with similar genes. Evolution is the change in frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generations.
Neuroethology Evolution can also show us what behaviors are important to the survival of not only our species, but all species. Franz de Waal: capuchins and fairness
Overview of Nervous System Nervous System: an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience: deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue o relationship to behavior and learning
Structure of the Neuron Neurons: the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system
Structure of the Neuron Parts of a Neuron: o dendrites: branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons o soma: the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the life of the cell o axon: long, tube-like structure that carries (sends) the neural message to other cells
The Structure of the Neuron
Other Types of Brain Cells Glial cells are grey fatty cells that: o provide support for the neurons to grow on and around o deliver nutrients to neurons o clean up waste products and dead neurons o produce myelin to coat axons o Myelin: fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse
How do neurons communicate? Through electrical & chemical communication: 1)Action Potential (electrical) 2)Neurotransmission (chemical)
Generating the Message: Neural Impulse Electrical: Ions: charged particles o inside neuron: negatively charged o outside neuron: positively charged Resting potential : the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse ( negative ) Action potential : the release of the neural impulse consisting of a positive electrical charge within the axon o positive sodium ions enter the cell
The Neural Impulse Action Potential
The Neural Impulse Action Potential
Generating the Message: Neural Impulse All-or-none Principle: a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Return to resting potential
Neurotransmission Chemical : Sending the message to other cells Axon terminals: branches at the end of the axon
Neuron Communication Synaptic vesicles: sack-like structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals o Neurotransmitters: chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell
Neuron Communication Synapse/synaptic cleft: microscopic fluid-filled space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell Receptor sites: holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters

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