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I some of these traits are called adaptations and

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i.) Some of these traits are called adaptations andcontribute to survival, health, and sexual attraction.Those with these advantageous traits are more likely tosurvive and reproduce, creating populations with similargenes.Evolutionis the change in frequency of genes occurringin an interbreeding population over generations.
NeuroethologyEvolution can also show us what behaviors areimportant to the survival of not only our species,but all species.Franz de Waal: capuchins and fairness
Overview of NervousSystemNervous System: an extensive network ofspecialized cells that carry information to andfrom all parts of the bodyNeuroscience: deals with the structure andfunction of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissueorelationship to behavior and learning
Structure of the NeuronNeurons: the basic cell that makes up the nervoussystem and receives and sends messages withinthat system
Structure of the NeuronParts of a Neuron:odendrites: branch-like structures thatreceivemessages from otherneuronsosoma: the cell body of the neuron, responsible for maintaining the lifeof the celloaxon: long, tube-like structure thatcarries (sends)the neural messageto other cells
The Structure of the Neuron
Other Types of Brain CellsGlial cells are grey fatty cells that:oprovide support for the neurons to grow on and aroundodeliver nutrients to neuronsoclean up waste products and dead neuronsoproduce myelin to coat axonsoMyelin: fatty substances produced by certain glial cells thatcoat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up theneural impulse
How do neurons communicate?Through electrical &chemicalcommunication:1)Action Potential(electrical)2)Neurotransmission(chemical)
Generating the Message: NeuralImpulseElectrical:Ions: charged particlesoinside neuron: negatively chargedooutside neuron: positively chargedResting potential: the state of the neuron when notfiring a neural impulse (negative)Action potential: the release of the neural impulseconsisting of apositiveelectrical charge within the axonopositive sodium ions enter the cell
The Neural Impulse Action Potential
The Neural Impulse Action Potential
Generating the Message: NeuralImpulseAll-or-none Principle: a neuron either firescompletely or does not fire at allReturn to resting potential
NeurotransmissionChemical:Sending the message to other cellsAxon terminals: branches at the end of the axon
Neuron CommunicationSynaptic vesicles: sack-like structures foundinside the synaptic knob containing chemicalsoNeurotransmitters: chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, whenreleased, has an effect on the next cell
Neuron CommunicationSynapse/synaptic cleft: microscopic fluid-filledspace between the rounded areas on the end ofthe axon terminals of one cell and the dendritesor surface of the next cellReceptor sites: holes in the surface of thedendrites or certain cells of the muscles andglands, which are shaped to fit only certainneurotransmitters

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Term
Fall
Professor
Mr.Peirce

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