Organizational behavior : Is a modern approach to management that attempts to determinate the causes of human work behavior and to translate the results into effective management techniques. Organizational behaviorists have borrowed an assortment of theories and research techniques from all the behavioral sciences and have applied them to people at work in modern organizations. The result is an interdisciplinary field in which psychology predominates. Organizational behavior has had a significant impact on modern management thought by helping to explain why employees behave as they do. Lessons from the behavioral approach : This approach makes it clear to present and future management that people are the key to productivity. According to advocates of the behavioral approach, technology, works rules and standards do not guarantee good job performance. Instead, success depends on motivated and skilled individuals who are committed to organizational objectives. This doctrine has been criticized as vague and simplistic, they do not believe that good human relations will lead to better job performance. The Systems approach A system is a collection of parts operating interdependently to achieve a common purpose. System approach represents a market departure from the past, in fact, it requires a completely different style of thinking. The other approaches studied management by taking things apart (the whole is equal to the sum of its parts), but systems approach study management by putting things together and assume that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Analytic thinking is outside-in thinking and synthetic thinking is inside-out. Systems theorists recommend synthetic thinking because management is not practiced in a vacuum. Managers affect and are in turn affected by many organizational and environment variables. Systems thinking has an enormous challenge to identify all relevant parts of organizational activity and to discover how they interact. Chester I. Barnard’s Early Systems Perspective : He is a Fayol’s follower. He characterized all organizations as cooperative systems “A cooperative system is a complex of physical, biological, personal and social components which are in a specific systematic relationship by reason of the cooperation of two or more persons for at least one defined end”. He believes that willingness to serve, common purpose and communication are the principal elements in an organization. Without this 3 element, the organization did not exit. He said that managers have to study organizations as a whole.
General systems theory : Is an interdisciplinary area of study based on the assumption that everything is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement. In order to understand an organized whole, we must know the parts and the relations between them.
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- Spring '14