It is also necessary to deal with the ravages of

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It is also necessary to deal with the ravages of household poverty. Poverty is not the only reason children do work that is harmful to their well-being and development, but it is one very important factor that also exacerbates others. Poverty reduction measures that can do much to relieve the survival pressures on children and their families include policies more fairly distributing income and tax burdens, land reform and other measures to ensure equitable access to fundamental assets, adequate support for basic services essential to the poor, investment in natural resource management and employment generation to reduce household vulnerability, and micro finance programmes that enable households to establish or improve small enterprises and better manage periods of scarcity." Government should give top priority to making education accessible and attractive to working children. 0 n In fact, many experts feel that the most important single thing that government can do to reduce child labour is to ensure the accessibility of quality basic education to everyone, especially the rural and urban poor. School calendars and schedules need to he made more flexible in order to accommodate children who must work during particular seasons or hours. The introduction of shifts or rescheduling the annual school cycle so that classes do not coincide with periods of peak labour demand can make a big difference for working children. I-lolding classes in areas where large numbers of children work, rather than in residential zones, can also help. In perhaps most schools serving the poorest populations, education quality and relevance must he improved to ensure that children really benefit from attending school. Schools should be made safe, productive and attractive to children so that they will want to attend, and will learn when there. Special attention should be devoted to eradicating violent and humiliating classroom practices that repel children and threaten their development, replacing them with learning methods (in some places known as "joyful learning") using games, songs, dance, and other activities children love. Curricula should be based on the situation of the children and be relevant to their everyday concerns, drawing as far as possible on children's own skills and knowledge. Schools can do much to inform children about work risks and how to avoid or deal with them. They can bring children's work experiences into the learning process, utilizing them as a basis for experiential learning that builds on work competencies children already have acquired and applies their new skills and knowledge to solving practical problems. Emphasis should be given to comprehension, critical analysis, problem solving and adaptation to changing conditions and new leaning situations as opposed to the mere acquisition of knowledge or learning by memory. Education planning should take into account working children's capacities, making use of alternative means of learning, including work-study combinations, where desirable and feasible. Learning models that are
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