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Membrane attack complex:group of complement components (C5-C9) that bind to lipid bilayer of cell membranes forming cylindrical channels (pores) of target cells allow influx of H2O cell lysis & deathKininTurned into bradykinin pain, chemotaxis, & ↑ vascular permeability/vasodilationCoagulation Cascade Activates kinin system via Factor XII (Hageman factor)Forms fibrin mesh stops bleeding & traps microorganismsb.Analyze the steps of the arachidonic acid pathway. 6.Analyze disorders which affect immune function. c.Identify the etiology, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of an allergic immune response. Etiology:
oImmediate hypersensitivity response to an environmental allergenoMost reactions attributed to food, meds, pollen, etc.Patho:oInitial exposure to allergen IgE binds w/ allergen antigen-IgE complex primes stage for reaction to occur lateroRe-exposure to allergen allergen (antigen) binds w/ previously formed antigen-IgE complex complex detectedby mast cells degranulation of complex release of histamine triggers inflammatory cascade Clinical manifestations:oDependent on route the allergen entered bodyUrticariaRhinitisConjunctivitisAsthmaAngioedema (idiopathic or r/t meds)Anaphylaxis (most severe):ItchingHivesAngioedemaN/V/D/abd crampsWheezingDyspneaLaryngeal edemaHypotensionShockDeathAtopic D/O:Hay feverAsthmaEczemaUrticaria d.Differentiate between the processes of autoimmunity and alloimmunity. Autoimmunity:oDisturbance in the immunologic tolerance of self-antigensoAutoimmune diseases occur when the immune system reacts against self-antigens to such a degree that the person’s own tissues are damaged by autoantibodies or autoreactive T-cellsAlloimmunity:oOccurs when person mounts an immune response to another member of the same species’ antigens/tissuesE.g. ABO incompatibility, Rh incompatibility, blood transfusion immunologic reaction, organ transplant rejection