unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance o In cultures that score high on uncertainty avoidance, people have an increased level of anxiety about uncertainty and ambiguity and use laws and controls to reduce uncertainty People in cultures low on uncertainty avoidance are more accepting of ambiguity, are less rule oriented, take more risks, and more readily accept change Long-term versus short-term orientation • This newest addition to Hofstede’s typology measures a society’s devotion to traditional values o People in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition In a short-term orientation , people value the here and now; they accept change more readily and don’t see commitments as impediments to change o Hofstede Research Findings shown in Exhibit 5-7 classify countries on the five dimensions. For example, Asian countries were more collectivist than individualistic. United States ranked highest on individualism. • German and Hong Kong rated high on masculinity. • Russia and The Netherlands were low on masculinity. • China and Hong Kong had a long-term orientation. • France and the United States had short-term orientation. o The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) began updating Hofstede’s research with data from 825 organizations and 62 countries. It uses variables similar to Hofstede including Assertiveness, Future orientation (similar to Long-term vs Short-term orientation), gender differentiation (similar to Masculinity vs Femininity). There are more. o Additional variables included in GLOBE are Uncertainly avoidance, Power distance, Individualism/collectivism, In-group collectivism, Performance orientation (the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence), and Humane orientation (which is the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence). o The main difference is that the GLOBE framework added dimensions, such as humane orientation (the degree to which a society rewards individuals for being altruistic, generous, and kind to others) and performance orientation (the degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence)
o Which framework is better? That’s hard to say, and each has its adherents • We give more emphasis to Hofstede’s dimensions here because they have stood the test of time and the GLOBE study confirmed them o However, researchers continue to debate the differences between them, and future studies may favor the more nuanced perspective of the GLOBE study
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