DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 594 4. A researcher working for a company that produces a standardized exam that predicts whether or not nursing students will pass the national licensure exam tests this tool at a level of significance of = .01, with power = .91. The results are statistically significant. What interpretation can the researcher justifiably make? a. Findings are important to nursing schools, and valuable for them. b . The exam should be used by all nursing schools. c. There is good evidence that the results can be replicated, with similar results. d . Results will be the same if the study is repeated with another sample. ANS: C The researcher chooses the probability of making a Type I error when setting , the level of si α gnificance. Nursing researchers usually set a level of significance of p <.05. A level of significance of p <.01 is much more stringent, and decreases the possibility of error to 1%. Significant results that coincide with the researcher’s predictions are the easiest to explain and, unless weaknesses are present, validate the proposed logical links among the elements of the study. There is good evidence that the reports are reproducible. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 594 5. Which of the following interpretations is acceptable as worded? a. The study proved that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. Financial incentives must be offered by insurance companies to all persons who cease smoking. b . Findings suggest that antihypertensives influence both length and quality of life, and that their use is more beneficial than formerly realized. c. The positive correlation between owning a dog who demands to be walked daily and the owner’s cardiovascular health indicates that all people should own dogs. d . Results imply that all humans who use amphetamines will have shortened life spans, and patient teaching needs to include this vital information. ANS: B Implications of research findings for nursing are the meanings of the conclusions for the body of nursing knowledge, theory, and practice. Implications for practices are often based, in part, on whether treatment decisions or outcomes would be different in view of the study findings. The study implications provide specific suggestions for implementing the findings in practice. Even when the results are significant and in keeping with those predicted by the researcher, the researcher must consider alternative explanations for the positive findings and cannot use the word “should” or its synonyms. One study does not “prove” that smoking causes lung cancer. A correlational study merely provides evidence of association. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 599 6. A researcher studies the effect upon pain control of providing pet therapy for children on a pediatric ward. While conducting the study, the researcher becomes aware of a strong correlation between parental presence and hours of children’s sleep. What is this correlation?
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- Fall '16
- Denise Cauble
- Nursing, Qualitative Research, researcher, Cognitive Level