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Chapter 13 inequality and achievement 2226 inner city

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Chapter 13: Inequality and Achievement 22:26 Inner city youth have less opportunity than suburban youth for education because their  schools provide inadequate education  Tracking-  process whereby students are divided into categories so that they can be  assigned in groups to various kinds of classes Kids in lower classes are disproportionately placed in lower tracks, although it is claimed  tracking is based on academia. Result is a highly stratified school Often children’s trajectories are set from 1 st  grade on, based simply on class Pygmalion Effect : Power of Expectations Hypothesis: teachers expectations influenced children’s performance Rosenthal and Jacobson’s Experiment Tested teachers and students to see if expectations mattered Result: students who were  randomly  projected to be academically advanced performed  better on the second test than the other students who were not Fallacy of Hard Work Some people obstacles loom larger than others’ Willingness to work hard is no guarantee that one will succeed in the competitive social  system Social Mobility, Social Structure, and Social Change Overall, social mobility explained more by social factors than individual effort. These  social factors include: Industrialization/technology-  more jobs provide more opportunity Birth rates-  higher class have fewer children, providing more jobs and fewer  competitors Immigration-  immigrants push nonimmigrants out of lowest jobs into higher ones (when  they exist) Mobility that results from these social facts is called structural mobility and does not rely much on the qualifications of a person but rather the social structure of society
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Chapter 14: Inequality and Ascription 22:26 Dollar Is Not Always a Dollar Some people’s dollars cost more or buy less In work Ex. A man’s education (same price as woman) is worth more than a woman’s education  (because he makes more money Men make more than women, whites make more than minorities In housing Minorities and women get less advantageous loans even when credit is good In buying cars White males offered the best initial and final offers with black males coming in last In purchasing appliances and foods Inner-city milk and fast food priced higher than suburbs Rent-to-Own is considerably more expensive than credit card or other payment plans (2- 5 times original cost) Prejudice Prejudgment - judgment of some thing, person, or situation on the basis of prior  experience with similar things Prejudice - prejudgment based on inaccurate information and/or illogical facts Often held on to even in the face of contradictory facts Stereotypes-  oversimplified generalized images about members of a particular group Difference between prejudice/stereotypes and discrimination:  Prejudice/stereotypes are beliefs/attitudes while discrimination is behavior
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Chapter 13 Inequality and Achievement 2226 Inner city youth...

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