2012 Asthma information for patients Retrieved from httpwwwaafaorg Camargo C A

2012 asthma information for patients retrieved from

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Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA). (2012). Asthma information for patients. Retrieved fromCamargo, C. A., Rachelefsky, G., & Schatz, M. (2009). Managing asthma exacerbations in the emergency department: Summary of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program expert panel report 3 guidelines for the management of asthma exacerbations. American Thoracic Society Journals, 6(1), 357-366.DOI: 10.1513/pats.P09ST2Depner, M., Fuchs, O., Genuneit, J., Karvonen, A. M., Hyvarinen, A., Kaulek, V., … Kabesch, M. (2014). Clinical and epidemiologic phenotypes of childhood asthma. AmericanJournal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189(2), 1-8.DOI: Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.McPhee, S. J., & Hammer, G. D. (2010). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (Laureate Education Inc., custom ed.). New Your, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.New Medical Information and Health Information (NMIHI). (2012). Asthma: Long-term lung disease. Retrieved from
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ASTHMA: CHRONIC AND ACUTE9Appendix AMind map: Acute asthma exacerbationEpidemiology Pathophysiology PresentationDiagnosis TreatmentGeographic localGenetic linkAgeFamily historyEnvironmental …exposureObesityOccupationCigarette SmokeTrigger inhaledBronchial mucosa inflammationHyperresponsiveness of airwaysB-cells produce IgE that is antigen-specific.IgE molecules cross-link with antigen on mast cell surface, causing degranulation of mast cells & release of inflammatory mediators.This leads to airway narrowing and obstruction to airflow with bronchospasms and mucus secretionChest tightnessWheezingCoughingDyspneaTachypneaTachycardiaUse of accessorymusclesHistoryPhysical examSpirometerArterial blood gasPeak flowRule out other conditionsRemove trigger if possibleOxygenInhaled beta-agonist bronchodilatorsProvide patient education on disease process, asthma management plan, proper recognition of symptoms and medication use
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ASTHMA: CHRONIC AND ACUTE10Appendix BMind map: Chronic asthmaEpidemiology Pathophysiology PresentationDiagnosis Treatment• Genetic linkOccupationDemographicsExisting medical conditionsCigarette smokeAge• Trigger inhaledInflammation of bronchial mucosa &hyper responsiveness of airwaysB-cells produce antigen-specific IgEIgE cross-links on mast cell surfaceMast cell degranulation & release of inflammatory mediatorsEosinophil’s directly injure tissue with fibroblast proliferation & scarringof airway• CoughingWheezingDyspneaTachypneaTachycardiaChest tightnessUse of accessorymusclesRespiratory acidosis• HistoryPhysical examABGSpirometerPeak flowRule out other conditions/causes• OxygenLong-acting beta agonistsCorticosteroidsAsthma management planControl predisposing disease processesRemove trigger if possibleIntubate if needed
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