therapy, which he defined as (1) congruence, (2) empathetic understanding, and (3) unconditional positive regard (Farber, 2007). Rogers’ paper featured his hypothesis on the conditions for therapeutic change. In any therapeutic situation in which empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence were applied Rogers argued personality change would occur (Elliott & Freire, 2007). Client- centered was then applied to education and called student- centered teaching (Corey, 2013). For more than twenty years Rogers’ theory was supported by research. Yet evidence based research ended in the 1970s due to claims of PCA not being effective as a therapeutic treatment (Quinn, 2015). Challengers to Rogers’ hypothesis began research studies indicating that the core conditions were not necessary or sufficient alone to bring about client change. However, reviews of research has suggested that many of the studies were flawed. The studies used therapists who demonstrated minimal or no levels of the core conditions, and ratings of the core conditions were taken by outside observers and the therapists. Rogers’ hypothesis stated that the client needed to perceive empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence from the counselor; therefore, having the client rate the core conditions would have made the studies accurate (Kirschenbaum & Jourdan, 2005). The fourth shift initiated by Rogers became known as the person-centered approach (Corey, 2013). This period was marked with increased efforts for client self- actualization, with the client being the main driving force behind successful psychotherapy (Corey, 2013). The core conditions were essential for therapy to have a successful outcome (Corey, 2013).
PERSON- CENTERED THERAPY 5 Tenets and Philosophy When Carl Rogers began developing the person-centered approach he proposed that PCA was a philosophy and therapy. Classical person-centered viewed the therapist as a companion accompanying the client on his journey to change due to the notion that advice and suggestion would hinder the therapeutic process. For Rogers, therapy was the process of exploring feelings and attitudes related to specific problems leading to increased self-actualization (Anderson, 2001). As opposed to the psychoanalytical approach, the client was viewed as the expert of his life (Kirschenbaum, 2012). Kirschenbaum (2012) argued one of the most essential elements of the person-centered approach is the “actualizing tendency” in which the client has the ability to mature, grow, and develop. Actualizing tendency for followers of PCA argued, “All individuals have within themselves the ability to guide their own lives” (Anderson, 2001, p. 340). The person-centered approach focused on personality change and moving the individual towards maturity in which client had freewill, and he could decide his own goals and behaviors in life (Anderson, 2001; & Quinn 2015).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 9 pages?
- Spring '14